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consumption of food was, on an average, of the value of 5,000 calories. Lusk also has shown that 5,000 calories is the amount of energy in food a healthy American boy needs. Each individual needs a different amount of food, which will vary according to his structure and surroundings; he will need protein, carbohydrates, fats, water, and, in addition to mineral salts, it is absolutely essential that certain types of proteins, certain types of fats, and certain salts be included in the dietary, and besides, he must have other accessory substances,' generically called vitamines, if he is to show physical growth. Unless food contains sufficient vitamine principles, no matter how well balanced the ration may be in the ternary food elements, nor how large quantities are consumed, nor how high the caloric value may be, there will be malnutrition. Canned vegetables, fruits, and meats are devoid of vitamine because of the excessive degree of heat necessary to sterilize the food sufficiently for preservation, and the following foods are relatively poor in vitamines : Sterilized (canned) milk, sterilized (canned) meat, cabbage, turnips, carrots, and like vegetables, all dried vegetables, dried fruits, highly milled cereals (white patent roller process flour, corn meal, and polished rice), pork, molasses, and corn syrup. As examples taken from a suggested daily menu for one week of a well-balanced ration for a growing boy the following are interesting :
I square Peach pie
One sixth Salt, pepper, pickles,
Total calories, 1,361 Total calories, 4,509
up the social and industrial organization in spite of the withdrawal of men for the Army has revealed the extent to which modern life has become complex and specialized. These and other lessons of the War must be learned quickly if we are intelligently and successfully to defend our institutions. When the War is over we must apply the wisdom which we have acquired in purging and ennobling the life of the world. In these vital tasks of acquiring a broader view of human possibilities the common school must have a large part.
hat teachers and other school officers increase materially the time and attention devoted to instruction bearing directly on the problems of the community and national life. In order that there may be definite material at hand with which the schools may at once expand their teaching, I have asked Mr. Hoover and Commissioner Claxton to organize proper agencies for the preparation and distribution of suitable lessons in elementary grades and high school classes. The lessons thus suggested will serve the double purpose of illustrating in a concrete way what can be undertaken by the schools and stimulating teachers in all parts of the country to formulate new and appropriate materials drawn directly from the communities in which they live.”
A further important step has been taken to demonstrate the aims and work of the Boy Scouts Movement. On the invitation of Sir Robert Baden-Powell, Chief Scout, a distinguished assembly recently witnessed the special introductory performance of the new official Scout film : “Boy Scouts---Be Prepared." The film admirably presents the wonderful story of the development of this great national and patriotic service, Full particulars regarding the film may be obtained on application being made to the new headquarters of the Scouts in Buckingham Palace Road, S.W.
The Boy Scouts of America, the headquarters of which Avenue, New York City, have recently issued, through Mesrs. Doubleday, Page and Company, of Garden City, New York, the sixteenth edition of their
Handbook for Boys." This is a volume justly prized by boys and workers among boys throughout the United States of
We shall be glad to receive particulars of experiments regarding the food and feeding of children under war conditions. It is to be hoped that the Ministry of Food will publish authoritative information from time to time regarding this allimportant problem of providing adequate food supplies for growing children. We certainly think that all Government Departments responsible for the care of children and the committees of all homes and orphanages undertaking the safeguarding of boys and girls should insist on having submitted to them full returns regarding the quality, quantity, variety, and forms of food now being supplied, together with particulars regarding the frequency and times of meals, and the menu for a fortnight. Food restriction may become necessary for us all, for at last we realize that the country as whole is at war, but mere financial considerations or difficulties in regard to staffing cannot at present be accepted as adequate excuses for allowing children to go improperly fed. It seems probable that most of the errors are due not so much to indifference and impecuniosity as to wilful ignorance of food values and the requirements of growing children.
MISCELLANY. Child life everywhere is being profoundly influenced by war conditions, and it is essential that children should under. stand the part they are to play in the great struggle for liberty and righteous
The Children of the United States of America are not forgotten in this time of crisis by their great President, Mr. Woodrow Wilson, who has addressed the following letter to all school officials throughout the nation : “ The urgent demand for the production and proper distribution of food and other national resources has made us aware of the close dependence of individual on individual and nation on nation. The effort to keep
America, and it deserves to be known and used by boys and all interested in boy betterment on this side of the Atlantic. The work contains particulars regarding the development of the Scout Movement in America, but the greater part is given up to splendid expositions of Scout craft, wood craft, wild life and conservation, camp craft, signs, symbols and signalling, health and endurance, chivalry, prevention of accidents, first aid and lifesaving, and games. The articles are contributed by well-known experts. Colonel Theodore Roosevelt writes on “ Practica) Citizenship" in the section on Patriotism and Citizenship. The handbook is effectively illustrated, the type is excellent and the paper is thin, so although there are upwards of 500 pages the volume is not a bulky one. We congratulate all who have participated in the production of this notable scouts' handbook.
“ Correlation of some Psychological and Educational Measurements, with special attention to the Measurement of Mental Ability,” by William Anderson McCall, Ph.D., is No. 79 of the valuable “ Contributions Education” issued from Teachers College, Columbia University, New York City (price $1). It is an erudite study of correlational psychology. The following problems receive able exposition : (1) What are the intercorrelations among our psychological and educational tests or the functions which they measure ? (2) What is the relative value of each test as a measure of mental ability ? (3) In the practical measurement of mental ability for educational and vocational purposes which tests are the more valuable? (4) In the construction and in the application of psychological tests for the measurement of mental ability do “speed" tests or “ power" tests offer more promise, whether as to correlation, convenience, or time spent ? (5) What characteristics in a test make for high correlation with mental ability ? (6) What is the value of improvement as a measure of mental ability ? (7) What is the significance of chronological age as an intellectual index ? (8) Is there such a thing as a negative correlation between desirable traits ? Is the law of human correlation or compensation ? (9) Do our results support Spearman's “ Theorem of the Universal Unity of Intellectual Func
tion," or Burt's “ Hierarchy of the Specific Intelligencies " ? The monograph deserves the careful consideration of all students of psychological experimentation and research.
The twenty-sixth edition of Annual Charities Register and Digest," issued by the Charity Organisation Society, Denison House, 200, Vauxhall Bridge Road, S.W., has just appeared. It is published by Messrs. Longmans, Green and Co., 39, Paternoster Row, E.C. (price 5s. net). This well-known annual fully maintains its representative character. It is an indispensable volume for all social service workers. Everyone engaged in child welfare efforts should possess a copy of this invaluable reference book. Among the “ Articles on Special Branches of Charitable Work" are communications dealing with the deaf and dumb, the blind, idiots and imbeciles, cripples, and epileptics. Mr. A. J. S. Maddison writes on “Reformatory and Industrial Schools and Voluntary Homes for Boys"; the Editor of THE CHILD furnishes a general survey of “Child Welfare” and provides a short bibliography of recent books likely to be of practical service. The major part of the volume is devoted to the Directory of Institutions, Societies and other Agencies of Relief.
The Sunday School Union, under the wise and energetic leadership of its President, Mrs. Barrow Cadbury, is holding meetings and conferences in various parts of the country for the consideration of problems and practical questions connected with “The Difhcult Boy and Girl.” Full particulars may be obtained application to Headquarters, 57 and 59, Ludgate Hill, E.C.
Agricultural Preparedness and Food Conservation : A Study in Thrift," published by the Thrift Education Committee of the National Council of Educa. tion, and issued from the office of the Chairman, Mr. Arthur H. Chamberlain, San Francisco, California, U.S.A., consists of a collection of striking addresses and papers presented at the Portland Meeting of the N.E.A. last summer. Among the communications are “How the School may Help Increase Food Production," by R. H. Wilson; “ Thrift in the Home," by Katherine D. Blake;
and “ The Food Problem, the War, the Aftermath, the Schools," by Arthur E. Chamberlain. These timely articles should be of practical service to educationists on both sides of the Atlantic. “ Canada and its Relations
to the British Empire," an address by Sir J. W. Flavelle, Bart., Chairman of the Imperial Munitions Board, Canada, is now available in pamphlet form, being published by. Messrs. Macmillan and Co., Ltd., St. Martin Street, W.C.2 (price id.).
Under the title of "Blindness in India and the Possibilities of its Diminution,” Mr. C. G. Henderson, of 62, West Hill, St. Leonards-on-Sea, has published, through Messrs. King, Bros. and Potts, Ltd., 66, Norman Road, St. Leonards-onSea, a brochure which merits serious study. There are about 600,000 totally blind persons in India. How can such wastage of human happiness and service be prevented ? This tract seeks to provide an answer.
“ Education, Scientific and Humane : A Report of the Proceedings of the Council for Humanistic Studies," edited by Frederic G. Kenyon, Chairman of the Council, and published by Mr. John Murray, Albemarle Street, W. (price 6d. net), is a praiseworthy effort to promote harmony and co-operation in educational reform. The pamphlet furnishes much valuable information, records certain attempts which have been made to give a healthier tone to educational discussions, shows that a large measure of agreement
is possible between the advocates of the several subjects which form the staple of our secondary education, and seeks to bring the weight of this agreement to bear on the solution of the. outstanding problems which have been the cause of bitter controversy in the past. “We have to show to a public not too ready to accept the proposition, that knowledge is power, that spiritual values tell even in a practical world, that you cannot starve the soul without the whole nation suffering loss." Every educationist should study this suggestive pamphlet.
“A Lap Full of Seed," by Max Plowman, pubished by Mr. B. H. Blackwell, 50, Broad Street, Oxford (price 3s. 6d. net), is a collection of striking verses by a disciple of William Blake. Many of the poems have appeared in well-known periodicals. The work evidences an unconventional and original attitude of thought to life's problems. The author is bold in his presentations, and his work evidences ready reaction to the supreme joys of being and the inquiring spirit of a forward-facing man eager to probe into the profound mysteries of existence. The poems deal in great measure with the emotional aspects of religion, sex meanings and relationships, and there are references to the attitude of childhood and youth to life's verities. The concluding portion of the volume contains a number of stirring war poems, in each of which the note of individual responsibility rings clear.
CHILD WELFARE AND STATE SERVICES.
In this section are inserted records of the progress of Child Welfare Work as carried out by various
State Services dealing with Health, Education, Industry, Delinquency, Defectiveness, and other questions relating to the care and control of the young. We shall be glad to receive copies of reports and all other official publications as soon after issue as may be possible.
THE NATION'S SCHOOL
CHILDREN. Sir George Newman's annual reports as Chief Medical Officer of the Board of Education are the most valuable of all periodical publications relating to child welfare. Each volume is a veritable mine of facts and figures, and withal there is the setting forth of opinions, suggestions, and judgments which make this annual blue book particularly notable among official reports. The record for 1916 is one of great interest and worthy to rank in the valuable series of its predecessors. Every worker for child betterment should study it from beginning to end. It is a volume which medical advisers and all educationists and others striving for the upbringing of an Imperial race should keep at hand for reference. The Report [Cd. 8746] can be obtained from H.M. Stationery Office, Imperial House, Kingsway, W.C.2 (price is, net). In the space at our disposal it is only possible to give a mere outline of its contents. We advise our readers to procure a copy and study it in its entirety. The School Medical Service introduced in 1907 by the Education (Administrative Provisions) Act, Section 13, is now the established national agency for the advancement of school hygiene, the branch of public medicine which is concerned with all that affects the healthy physical development of the child of school age.
The foundations of school hygiene are laid in (a) a system of education conducive to sound physical growth; (b) an appropriate school environment; and (c) the medical supervision of the individual child. The School Medical Service is not restricted to medical inspection, but has to do with the whole physical condition and growth of the child. As is well contended in this Report, school hygiene is not to be separated from the public system of education to
which the child is subjected and of which it forms an integral part. In the earliest years of childhood nurture is education and education is nurture, and this holds true, although in diminishing degree, throughout childhood. School hygiene cannot be separated from the public system of State medicine of which it forms a part, related, at the youngest age of the child, to those manifold offices which are concerned in maternal welfare and infant management, and at the end of school life to those agencies which have for their purpose the health of the adolescent and his preparation and equipment for life. Sir George Newman points out very truly that the War has given a new emphasis to the importance of the child as a primary national asset. We all now realize that the future and strength of the nation depend upon the vitality of the child, upon his health and development, and upon his education and equipment for citizenship; no reconstruction of the State can wisely ignore the claims of the child. A new understanding of child life is among us, and the child is steadily coming into his kingdom, his individual birthright of health and well-being. The child population in England and Wales for 1916 between the ages of 5 and 14 is estimated to be 6,807,260. The number of these children on the registers of public elementary schools in 1916 was approximately 5,800,000. The number of children of school age not on the registers was therefore about 1,000,000. Many of these had left the elementary school, many others were at public, secondary, proprietary, reformatory or Poor Law schools, and an unknown number were absent from the registers on account of chronic invalidism. Of the 6,000,000 children in attendance at school careful medical inspection has demonstrated that many, though not specifically “feeble-minded,” are so dull and backward mentally as to be unable