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of business. To conclude, there is no decaying merchant, or inward beggar, hath so many tricks to uphold the credit of their wealth, as these empty persons have to maintain the credit of their sufficiency. Seeming Wise Men may make shift to get opinion, but let no man choose them for employment; for certainly you were better take for business a man somewhat absurd, than over-formal.

Of Friendship.

It had been hard for him that spake it, to have put more truth and untruth together in few words, than in that speech, “ Whosoever is delighted in solitude, is either a wild beast, or a god.” For it is most true, that a natural and secret hatred, and aversation towards society in any man, hath somewhat of the savage beast; but it is most untrue, that it should have any character at all of the Divine nature, except it proceed not out of a pleasure in solitude, but out of a love and desire to sequester a man's self for a higher conversation; such as is found to have been falsely and feignedly in some of the heathen, as Epimenides the Candian, Numa the Roman, Empedocles the Sicilian, and Apollonius of Tyana; and truly and really in divers of the ancient hermits, and holy fathers of the Church.

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But little do men perceive what solitude is, and how far it extendeth : for a crowd is not company, and faces are but a gallery of pictures, and talk but a tinkling cymbal, where there is no love. The Latin adage meeteth with it a little, “A great city is a great solitude;" because in a great town friends are scattered, so that there is not that fellowship, for the most part, which is in less neighbourhoods. But we may go further, and affirm most truly, that it is a mere and miserable solitude to want friends, without which the world is but a wilderness : and even in this sense also of solitude, whosoever in the frame of his nature and affections is unfit for Friendship, he taketh it of the beast, and not from humanity.

A principal fruit of Friendship is, the ease and discharge of the fulness and swellings of the heart, which passions of all kinds do cause and induce. We know diseases of stoppings and suffocations are the most dangerous in the body, and it is not much otherwise in the mind; you may take sarza to open the liver, steel to open the spleen, flower of sulphur for the lungs, castoreum for the brain; but no receipt openeth the heart, but a true Friend, to whom you may impart griefs, joys, fears, hopes, suspicions, counsels, and whatsoever lieth upon the heart to oppress it, in a kind of civil shrift or confession. It is a strange thing to observe, how high a rate

great kings and monarchs do set upon this fruit of Friendship whereof we speak; so great, as they purchase it many times at the hazard of their own safety and greatness. For princes, in regard of the distance of their fortune from that of their subjects and servants, cannot gather this fruit, except (to make themselves capable thereof) they raise some persons to be, as it were, companions, and almost equals to themselves, which many times sorteth to inconvenience. The modern languages give unto such persons the name of favourites or privadoes, as if it were matter of grace or conversation. But the Roman' name attaineth the true use and cause thereof, naming them

“ Partakers of our cares ;" for it is that which tieth the knot. see plainly that this hath been done, not by weak and passionate princes only, but by the wisest and most politic that ever reigned; who have oftentimes joined to themselves some of their servants, whom both themselves have called Friends, and allowed others likewise to call them in the same manner, using the word which is received between private men.

L. Sylla, when he commanded Rome, raised Pompey (after surnamed the Great) to that height, that Pompey vaunted himself for Sylla's overmatch: for when he had carried the consulship for a friend of his against the pursuit of Sylla, and that

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Sylla did a little resent thereat, and began to speak great, Pompey turned upon him again, and in effect bad him be quiet ;

“ For that more men adored the sun-rising than the sun-setting.” With Julius, Decimus Brutus had obtained that interest, as he set him down in his testament, for heir in remainder after his nephew. And this was the man that had power with him, to draw him forth to his death. For when Cæsar would have discharged the senate, in regard of some ill presages, and specially a dream of Calpurnia; this man lifted him gently by the arm out of his chair, telling him, he hoped he would not dismiss the senate, till his wife had dreamed a better dream. And it seemeth his favour was so great, as Antonius in a letter, which is recited“ word for word” in one of Cicero's Philippics, called him venefica,“ witch ;" as if he had enchanted Cæsar. Augustus raised Agrippa (though of mean birth) to that height, as when he consulted with Mæcenas about the marriage of his daughter Julia, Mæcenas took the liberty to tell him, “ That he must either marry his daughter to Agrippa, or take away his life; there was no third way, he had made him so great." With Tiberius Cæsar, Sejanus had ascended to that height, as they two were termed and reckoned as a pair of Friends. Tiberius in a letter to him saith, “Out of regard to our Friendship, I have not concealed these matters ;" and the

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whole senate dedicated an altar to Friendship, as to a goddess, in respect of the great dearness of Friendship between them two. The like or more was between Septimius Severus and Plantianus : for he forced his eldest son to marry the daughter of Plantianus, and would maintain Plantianus in doing affronts to his son, and did write also in a letter to the senate these words ;

“ I love the man so well, as I wish he may over-love me.” Now if these princes had been as a Trajan, or a Marcus Aurelius, a man might have thought, that this had proceeded of an abundant goodness of nature ; but being men so wise, of such strength and severity of mind, and so extreme lovers of themselves, as all these were; it proveth most plainly, that they found their own felicity (though as great as ever happened to mortal men) but as an half piece, except they might have a Friend to make it entire; and yet, which is more, they were princes that had wives, sons, nephews, and yet all these could not supply the comfort of Friendship.

It is not to be forgotten, what Commineus observeth of his master, Duke Charles the Hardy; namely, “ That he would communicate his secrets with none; and least of all those secrets which troubled him most.” Whereupon he goeth on, and saith, that towards his latter time, “That closeness did impair, and a little perish his understanding."

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