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a great knowledge of the duties that belonged | it was said, remained shut up in his room, to the office. He was an army reformer in a where nobody was admitted to speak to himı moderate degree, and bad displayed remark- except on urgent business. able talent in relation to the various details of Lord Palmerston appealed to the house to military organization. For twenty years, as support a government which he said he Mr. Fox Maule, he had held a distinguished thought would be able to carry on public position in parliament, and whenever his party affairs. It contained, he believed, sufficient was in power had satisfactorily filled offices of administrative ability, sufficient political sagreater or less importance. His father, the gacity, sufficient patriotism and determinayoungest son of the eighth Earl of Dalhousie, tion to justify him in asking the house and had changed his name from Ramsay to Maule the country for support in the present critical on succeeding through his grandmother to the state of our national affairs. In sketching the estates of the old earls of Panmure, whose intentions of the government he said that the title he took when he was raised to the peerage secretary of the admiralty had established a in 1831. Mr. Fox Maule, who had succeeded board to superintend the transport service at to the title only just before the formation of We were engaged in warlike operations the Aberdeen government, had served twelve with France as an ally, but we had not the years as an officer of the 79th Highlanders, means of sending so many men into the field and was thirty-four years old before he en- as France, and it was but fair that we should tered the civil service of the country. In No- make some return to France in the shape of vember, 1842, he had been elected Lord-rector additional naval arrangements. He was conof the University of Glasgow, in 1849 became vinced that the establishment of that board Lord-lieutenant of Forfarshire, and in 1853 would lead to increased economy and effilord-keeper of the privy seal of Scotland. As ciency in that department. Well-grounded under secretary of state for the home depart-complaints having been made as to the conment in the government of Lord Melbourne dition of our war-hospitals, it was intended he had shown such business aptitude that he to send out three civilians for the purpose of was afterwards nominated vice-president of making good sanitary arrangements for the the Board of Trade; but it was in the war de- hospitals, camps, and ships, and from their partment that he displayed the marked abi- scientific labours he anticipated the greatest lity which led to his being appointed to the advantages. No means would be omitted to onerous position which he accepted under Lord reinforce the army in due time. Charged as Palmerston. A cheerful, rather jovial, witty the government was with the interests of a man, but with a certain dignity, which, in great nation, they had to look not only to the conjuuction with his appearance, stamped him means of carrying on the war with great as belonging rather to the old school of man- vigour, but it was their duty to take all ners. There was in his appearance something measures in their power to put an end to it. to remind one of Elliston the theatrical man- They had been informed that certain arraugeager, and of the fashion of the best men of ments agreed to between England and France the fourth Georgian period. A fur-collared had been submitted to Austria, and adopted cloak, a full-bosomed coat, and what has been by Russia as the basis of negotiation. In called "a cataract of black satin,” forming order that these negotiations might be most a stock fastened with a double pin; a face solemnly conducted they proposed to Lord clean shaven, and neatly brushed curling John Russell to undertake the duty, being hair; this is the portrait of Lord Panmure convinced that when they were placed in the at the time of which we are speaking. There hands of a man so generally respected at home was much fun in the expression of his mouth, and so well known throughout Europe, if much penetration in his eyes, and he was, their efforts should fail they would stand in fact, distinguished for his ready bonhomie, acquitted from blame. The noble lord would except when he had an attack of gout, and, as first proceed to Paris, thence to Berlin, where


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be would be in communication with the King but it was contended that there had been no of Prussia, and although some time might real change of ministry—that the same men elapse before his arrival in Vienna, the time remained, but were distributed in different He spent in those two capitals would not be offices. On these grounds Mr. Disraeli de

manded the prosecution of the inquiry by a Mr. Layard, however, was still in bitter select committee, in accordance with Mr. Roeopposition to the government, though the buck's motion, satirically basing the demand bew administration had begun its work with upon the recommendation of Lord John Rusenergy, and Lord Panmure had already put sell: “the first minister of the crown in this forward a plan for obtaining more recruits house—the man of whom as a member, irreby enlisting experienced men for shorter spective of all party politics, this house is most periods of two or three years, instead of the proud - the man who had previously been young fellows who, being unseasoned, died on prime minister of England for a long period being despatched to the Crimea. Mr. Layard of years — the man whose qualities, whose was not to be pacified, and in the House of sagacity, whose wisdom, whose statesmanlike Commons rose to “call attention to the exist- mind have been just eulogized by the first ing state of affairs." The country, he asserted, minister on the treasury bench--a man of stood on the brink of ruin—it had fallen into such qualities, that though he had intentionthe abyss of disgrace, and had become the ally destroyed his late colleagues, they have laughing-stock of Europe. The new ministry already employed him upon an august missiou differed little from the last. Was Lord Pal- --this eminent person comes down to parlianierston willing to accept peace on any terms? ment and tells you that although as a minister Was the country going to engage in prolonged of the crown he cannot, with all the advanhostilities? Was it proposed to engage on our

tages of official experience, penetrate the mysbehalf oppressed nationalities? Would the tery of the national calamity that has occurred, Circassians be assisted? In short, what was that he thinks inquiry ought to be granted, as the government going to do? The people of the plea for it is irresistible.” Mr. Disraeli then England demanded a thorough reform. What went on to say that after this opinion had been the country wanted was not septuagenarian endorsed by a majority almost unprecedented experience, but more of youthful activity and in the records of parliament, they were tolil energy. He commended the plan of the that the House of Commons was to stultify French revolutionary convention, and inti- itself—to recede from the ground which it so mated that it would be well if the house triumphantly occupied—to rescind the resoshould send out a commission of its own men- lution which it so solemnly affirmed. bers to inquire and to regulate proceedings in Mr. Roebuck, however, had no intention to the Crimea. Lord Palmerston's retort was recede from his original proposal; he had been ready. He suggested that it might be satis- suffering from illness, but he pressed the infactory to the house to take the honourable quiry with renewed energy. Lord Palmerston, member at his word, and to add to the direc- believing that to make the motion for an intion that he and his colleagues should proceed quiry into one of waut of confidence would, instantly to the Crimea, the further instruction in the condition of the public temper, again that they should remain there during the rest break up the government and provoke anof the session. This was of course received other crisis, consented to the appointment of a with great laughter; but Mr. Roebuck's mo- select committee. The country, it was argued, tion still hung over the government, and this was bent on having the inquiry, and therefore was no laughing matter. It would seem to it was that the House of Commons insisted liave been unreasonable that a committee of upon it, and not froin hostility to the new inquiry levelled against one administration ministry. Had such hostility existed, the should be continued against another which house, it was felt, would not have voted, as had neither been tried nor found wanting; they had just done, without a murmur, largely

the war.

increased estimates for the purpose of increas- made a fervent, an impassioned appeal to ing the strength of both army and navy. the house and to Lord Palmerston to stay

With these conclusions, however, Mr. Gladstone and some other influential members of “You are not pretending to conquer territhe new administration did not agree, or at tory," he said; "you are not pretending to all events they felt that they could not now hold fortified or unfortified towns; you have consistently consent to an inquiry which they offered terms of peace, which, as I understand had previously affirmed was not only unneces- them, I do not say are not moderate; and sary but impolitic. They were opposed to the breathes there a man in this house, or in this inquiry, at such a juncture, as a breach of con- country, whose appetite for blood is so institutional principle and a dangerous prece- satiable that even when terms of


have dent. Sir James Graham said that he could been offered and accepted, he pines for that not consent to the appointment of a commit- assault in which, of Russian, Turk, French, tce which included no member of the govern- and English, as sure as one man dies, 20,000 ment, and he was also opposed to a select corpses will strew the streets of Sebastopol ? committee. If secret, its investigations could I say I should like to ask the noble lord-and not be checked by public opinion; and if open, I am sure that he will feel, and that this house the evidence taken would be immediately made will feel, that I am speaking in no unfriendly public and canvassed in a manner injurious manner towards the government of which he to the public service. Mr. Sidney Herbert is at the head. I should like to know, and I declared that as a vote of censure the motion venture to hope that it is so, if the noble lord, for the committee was valueless, while as an the member for London, has power at the inquiry it would be a mere sham. Mr. Glad- earliest stage of these proceedings at Vienna stone significantly represented that the com- at which it can properly be done—and I should mittee, being neither for punishment nor think that it might properly be done at a very remedy, must be for government, and could early stage—to adopt a course by which all furnot fail to deprive the executive of its most ther waste of human life may be put an end important functions. All three, therefore, to, and further animosity between three great announced their intention to retire from the nations be, as far as possible, prevented ? I ministry, and they were followed by Mr. appeal to the noble lord at the head of the Cardwell; so that the Palmerston government government and to this house; I am not now was at the outset considerably shaken; but it complaining of the terms of peace nor, indeed, was felt that it had become necessary to keep of anything that has been done; but I wish it together on the best terms possible, for to suggest to this house what, I believe, thouanother serious crisis would have been mis- sands and tens of thousands of the most educhievous while negotiations were supposed to cated and of the most Christian portion of the be pending, and yet it was necessary to pre- people of this country are feeling upon this pare for a vigorous prosecution of the war. subject, although, indeed, in the midst of a On this subject--the success of negotiation or certain clamour in the country, they do not the continuance of war-opinion was divided; give public expression to their feelings. I but most people seemed to share Lord Pal- cannot but notice in speaking to gentlemen merston's doubts of the good faith of the who sit on either side of this house, or in czar, and were for increased armaments. Mr. speaking to any one I meet between this house Bright and those who agreed with him, how- and any of those localities we frequent when ever, were of a different opinion, and thought this house is up, I cannot, I say, but notice

I that they saw in the proposed negotiations at that an uneasy feeling exists as to the news Vienna an opportunity which the Emperor of which may arrive by the very next mail from Russia would accept for bringing hostilities to the East. I do not suppose that your troops a close. During the debate which followed are to be beaten in actual conflict with the foe, the explanations of the retiring ministers, he or that they will be driven into the





I am certain that many homes in England, in had ever been heard in the House of Comwhich there now exists a fond hope that the mons, was listened to with a profound and distant one may return; many such homes impressive silence which was almost painful may be rendered desolate when the next mail in its intensity, and might by a less able or shall arrive. The angel of death has been less earnest speaker have been too easily turned abroad throughout the land; you may almost into a laugh by some misplaced word. Such hear the beating of his wings. There is no silence is often only relieved by some half hysone, as when the first-born were slain of old, terical outburst; but on this occasion it was to sprinkle with blood the lintel and the two deep and unbroken. “The beating of the side-posts of our doors, that he may spare and wings” seemed for a moment possible, for in pass on; he takes his victims from the castle that almost breathless hush the house seemed of the noble, the mansion of the wealthy, and to be listening for something even beyond the the cottage of the poor and the lowly, and it words of him who addressed them. is on behalf of all these classes that I make The new trial to the ministry was sharp, this solemn appeal. I tell the noble lord, that but it was short; and the concession of Lord if he be ready honestly and frankly to endea- Palmerston to what he believed to be the devour, by the negotiations about to be opened at mand of the country having been made for the Vienna, to put an end to this war, no word of purpose of avoiding the inconvenience and mine, no vote of mine, will be given to shake danger of the government being again in abeyhis power for one single moment, or to change ance, it was necessary to fill up the vacant bis position in this house. I am sure that the places without delay. Sir G. C. Lewis therenoble lord is not inaccessible to appeals made fore succeeded Mr. Gladstone as chancellor to him from honest motives, and with no un- of the exchequer. Sir C. Wood replaced Sir friendly feeling. The noble lord has been for James Graham at the admiralty; Mr. Vernon more than forty years a member of this house. Smith went to the board of control, and Lord Before I was born he sat upon the treasury Stanley of Alderley to the board of trade. At bench, and he has spent his life in the service the same time Sir Robert Peel (the son of the of his country. He is no longer young, and repealer of the corn-laws) was made a lord of his life has extended almost to the term allotted the admiralty, and Mr. Harrison became secreto man. I would ask, I would entreat the tary for Ireland. Lord John Russell was noble lord to take a purse which, when he nominated colonial secretary in place of Mr. looks back upon his whole political career-- Sidney Herbert, the appointment reaching whatever he may therein find to be pleased him as he was on his way to Vienna. with, whatever to regret-cannot but be a Before the conferences could be commenced, source of gratification to him. By adopting and while the new government was settling that course he would have the satisfaction of into its place, and perhaps reckoning the adreflecting that, having obtained the object of vantages that had been gained by the victory his laudable ambition-having become the of Omar Pasha, who, aided by the British fleet, foremost subject of the crown, the director of, had repelled and defeated the attack made by it may be, the destinies of his country and 40,000 Russians under General Liprandi on the the presiding genius in her councils--he had Turkish position at Eupatoria; an event hapachieved a still higher and nobler ambition: pened which startled and impressed Europe, that he had returned the sword to the scab- and gave a new direction to the hopes of those bard-that at his word torrents of blood had who were most anxious for the conclusion of ceased to flow--that he had restored tran- a lasting peace. quillity to Europe, and saved this country from On the 2d of March the Czar Nicholas of the indescribable calamities of war."

Russia lay dead. It almost seemed as though The effect of the appeal on the critical sense he could not survive the intelligence that a of the house was very great, and the impres- smaller force of the despised Turks had beaten sive peroration, as fine a piece of oratory as back his regiments at Eupatoria. Soon after

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that news reached him he became delirious; | frost continued. “Sire,” said one of his but it is not therefore to be assumed that physicians, “there is not in the whole army a his fatal illness was attributable to reverses, military surgeon who would permit a common which, in spite of the continued hold upon soldier to quit the hospital in the state in Sebastopol, had befallen the Russian arms. which you are, for he would be sure that his In another sense, however, he may be said to patient would re-enter it still worse.” have hazarded his life in the war and lost it. well, gentlemen,"answered the emperor; “you General February had not proved to be an ally. have done your duty, now I am going to do The weather, inclement and rigorous in the mine;" and upon this he entered the sledge. Crimea, was almost insupportable at St. Peters- In passing along the ranks of his soldiers his burg to anybody who was exposed to its air of suffering and continual cough betrayed severity, especially to one who had been suffer- | his condition. On his return he said, “I am ing from influenza, and refused to take even bathed in perspiration.” Before going hone ordinary precautions for preventing a worse he called upon Prince Dolgorouki, the minister disorder. The chief anxiety of the Emperor of war, who was ill, and, more prudent for Nicholas, with regard to his own health, was him than for himself, he urged him not to go to observe a regimen which would prevent out too soon. He passed the evening with the corpulency, of which he had a peculiar dread; empress, but complained of cold and kept on and this may account for many of his active his cloak. and almost restless habits, as well as for his The result of his imprudent excursion was usual abstemiousness. He had during the a serious relapse, which compelled him to rebitterest weather persisted in attending re- main in the small room which was his workviews of the troops and inspecting defences. ing cabinet, whence for some days he conHe had been on the ice to examine the forti- tinued to issue orders respecting the defence fications of Cronstadt, and, in fact, gave him- of Sebastopol and the disposition of the army; self no leisure and no repose in preparing for but it was evident that his brain had become the exigencies of the conflict which he had affected. The empress left her own apartchallenged. He even seemed to have a pre- ments to attend upon him; but he continued, sentiment of death, occasioned either by his by the exercise of a powerful will, to fight gloomy reception of the news of repeated against increasing weakness, and during the defeat in the Crimea, or from a sense of de- first days of Lent attended the religious serparting strength; but he would relax no exer

vices of the season in the usual manner. But tion even though the affection of the chest, after three or four days he was compelled to from which he had begun to suffer, became absent himself; and the empress, who was more serious. It was not till Dr. Mandt ex- borne down with distress, then suggested to pressed an earnest desire for a second physician him the serious nature of his illness by proto be summoned that he consented to consult posing that he should receive the sacraments. Dr. Karell, his physician-in-ordinary, and For some time he did not or would not realize agreed to remain in bed. The health of the his dangerous condition; but at last, noticing empress was at this time so feeble that she

the deep grief of the empress, he began to also was confined to her own apartment, so comprehend it, and having dismissed his phythat the emperor was without the consola- sician, sent for the hereditary prince and told tion which her presence might have afforded him that his recovery was hopeless. He then him. He daily grew worse, he was sleep- sent for his confessor, the archpriest Bajanoff, less, and his cough was incessant. He could with whom, after having blessed the empress not tolerate a condition which imposed in and the prince, who remained during the preactivity, and announced his determination liminary prayers, he was left alone, the emto review a corps of infantry of the guard press and the czarowitch returning afterwards, which was on its way to Lithuania. The when he took the communion. He then sent weather was still intensely cold, and a hard for all the members of his family, of whom he

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