« ПредыдущаяПродолжить »
GERMANY AND THE WAR IN ITALY.
of the civilized world doubted the agency by which it was to be vindicated. They failed to see in the "man of December"--the sovereign who had gained power by a coup d'état -the consistent rescuer of an oppressed people, the upholder of freedom, the champion of the oppressed. Germany, perhaps, showed the greatest perturbation, by the immediate mobilization of the greater part of the army; and still more by the demand made by an influential party that they should at once annex Alsace and Lorraine, march to Paris, and effectually cripple France for the remainder of the century. The cry "To Paris! to Paris!" was as shrill and persistent then in Berlin as that of "To Berlin! to Berlin!" was eleven years later in Paris, when Napoleon was precipitated into the war with Germany which lost him his throne and cost France so dear. Nor were the Germans without reasonable excuse for the outcry. French military officers were again too free with their tongues, and the words of General Espinasse-"I accompany the emperor to Italy with pleasure, for it is the first step towards the Rhine"-were perhaps an example of other phrases which were sure to be repeated. An article in the Allgemeine Zeitung, which was reprinted in the Times, interpreted the desire of the Germans. Commenting upon it the Times said: "If we may trust the Allgemeine Zeitung, which does not often speak without some authority, all Germany, from Cologne to Swabia, from the Baltic to the Euxine, is possessed by one unanimous uproarious enthusiasm for the conquest of Alsace and Lorraine, and for the occupation of Paris! Sober, steady-going old Germany is, we are told, dreaming quite seriously of some tremendous scheme of invasion, of which France is to be the victim, and we English are to be part agents in the work, but by no means participators in the gain."
England, however, took good care to let the world know that Germany would receive no help from her, and that without this assistance the north German coast would be exposed to France and also to Russia, who had at the same time concentrated 200,000 men on the Austrian frontier, and in the neighbourhood of
the Danubian Principalities. So wide-spread was the suspicion that the intervention of France would not end with a war in Italy, that Switzerland placed 100,000 men under arms, and Denmark 70,000; Belgium alone, relying on the guarantees of her independence, making no effort to increase her defensive armaments. It therefore became of the utmost importance to the Emperor of the French that the war should be localized. The States of the Confederation were already demanding to be led to the support of Austria. Prussia, though understanding the danger which such a policy must involve, could not venture wholly to dissociate herself from the prevailing sentiment of the North German States. She had accordingly made the French ambassador at Berlin aware, that while she would not say that no territorial change must be effected by the war, she would not see with tranquillity any heavy sacrifice inflicted upon Austria, nor any change made which would enhance the strength of one power at the expense of another. To localize the war, therefore, and to leave Austria and France with her ally Sardinia to fight it out alone, became a matter of vital importance to the Emperor of the French. If he succeeded in this, and Austria were defeated, she might naturally, in resentment at being deserted by Germany, stand aloof and leave the other States of the Confederation to withstand without her aid any attempt upon the Rhine, which France, flushed with victory, might afterwards make. It was thus by no means clear that it was for the interest of Germany that the war should be localized. To Russia, however, it was scarcely of less moment than to France that it should be so; for, if Germany embarked in it, Russia must declare her policy, and either break with France or with Germany. For neither event was she prepared, and she was, moreover, without either the men or money required for an active participation in such a war as must then have ensued.
It soon became evident to Napoleon III. that, unless he confined his interposition to helping to drive the Austrians out of Italy, he would cause a general state of hostility in Europe. The queen, in reply to a letter from
the empress, had already warned him against a continental journey, during which he had an attempt to invade the Austrian States, given ample promise of that distinguished when it would only be natural that Germany, frankness and simple bonhomie which have alarmed at seeing one of the most important always made him not only popular, but welmembers of her Confederation attacked and
come, in every country to which he has paid in danger, should be impelled to come to her a visit. Nowhere have these qualities been assistance, and that all Europe should take more truly recognized than among his own alarm at seeing the treaties put in question countrymen, who see in the Prince of Wales on which its peace and its existence rested. much that is to be regarded as typically
On the attitude of England the ultimate English. His characteristic outspokenness, no direction of the war seemed to depend, and less than his rank,places him above artifice,and England maintained a strictly neutral posi- he has at command a certain serious dignity tion. We had, however, hastily strengthened by which he can always protect himself from our naval armaments, and the Rifle Volunteer vulgar familiarity, while he succeeds in placforce, the formation of which, perhaps, received ing those about him at their ease, and accepts a new stimulus from the general condition of with genuine appreciation courtesies which bis affairs in Europe, was growing with enormous station might entitle him to leave unnoticed. rapidity, and was being formed into a regular
ar There had been more than one gap made in body. “Volunteer corps are being formed the royal circle, for Prince Alfred had comin all the towns," wrote Prince Albert to menced his nautical career at the end of Baron Stockmar on the 8th of December. October in the previous year, and was with the " The lawyers of the Temple go through regu- Euryalus, which had been placed on the Medilar drill. Lords Spencer, Abercorn, Elchio,
terranean station for two years. The Prince &c., are put through their facings in West
Consort and the Prince of Wales had acminster Hall by gaslight in the same rank companied him to Spithead. The Prince of and file with shopkeepers. Close on 50,000 Wales had shortly afterwards received the are already under arms."
rank of colonel in the army and had been Prince Albert shortly afterwards was called invested with the Garter. Mr. Gibbs, his upon to take a prominent part in the public former tutor, had retired, and Colonel Bruce, demonstrations of this force, which had grown the brother of Lord Elgin, had become his spontaneously in numbers and efficiency, but governor, and with Major Teesdale had acat the time he wrote he was but just recover- companied him on a visit to the princess royal, ing from one of those attacks of illness to which and there produced a remarkable impression he appeared to be increasingly liable. But he by his singular tact and unaffected manner. was still actively busy in so many directions “All that a parent's heart could desire,” the that probably few men in the kingdom worked Prince Regent (the present Emperor of Gerharder. As a relief from the cares and many) wrote to Prince Albert. His royal anxieties which he shared with the queen highness had returned to Loudon, and rethere had been a very delightful family re- sumed some of his studies, among the pleasunion. The princess royal (the Princess of antest of which, we may think, were a series Prussia), and her husband, Prince Frederick of lectures on history by Charles Kingsley, William, had again been on a visit to Wind- who had been appointed one of her majesty's sor to keep the queen's birthday, and her chaplains, mainly in consequence of the great company was always a great delight to her admiration of Prince Albert for his books, father; and now he was prepared to welcome especially Two Years ago and The Saint's her with tender solicitude, for she had become Tragedy. By the end of 1858 Prince Alfred a mother, and the first grandchild of the was at Malta, and we afterwards hear of him queen had only just been baptized at Berlin. at Tunis and Algiers, and in Greece, especially The Prince of Wales, too, had just returned at Corfu. The Prince of Wales was then from Rome, where he had been staying after ! starting for Italy, and his route was not at
PRINCE OF WALES-PRINCE ALBERT—THE VOLUNTEERS.
first changed because of approaching events. tions, was promoted by Prince Albert, and its In February, 1859, he was in Rome, and, after completion greatly accelerated by the active some stay, extended his tour to the south of interest he manifested in it, and the assistance Spain and Lisbon, where he remained till given to the enterprise by Mr. Henry Cole,
, June, when he was to return to Edinburgh to who had taken a prominent part in the Great resume his regular studies, and afterwards to Exhibition of 1851. So great had been the go to Oxford. On the 3d of September Prince success of that undertaking, that the Society Albert wrote to Stockmar from Balmoral: of Arts had already proposed to commence “In Edinburgh I had an educational confer
arrangements for organizing another such disence with all the persons who are taking part play in 1861, and Prince Albert was solicited in the education of the Prince of Wales. They to take part with the former commission in all speak highly of him, and he seems to have carrying out the necessary provisions. It is shown zeal and good-will. Dr. Lyon Play- not surprising that he shrank from it a little, fair is giving him lectures on chemistry in but he did not refuse, though he was in prerelation to manufactures, and at the close of carious health, and the number and importeach special course he visits the appropriate ance of his engagements scarcely left him time manufactory with him, so as to explain its for necessary rest and little or none for general practical application. Dr. Schmitz (the Rec- recreation. tor of the High School of Edinburgh, a Ger- As we have noted, he had taken an imman) gives him lectures on Roman history. mediate personal interest in the organization Italian, German, and French are advanced at of the Volunteer force, and when the governthe same time; and three times a week the ment decided to authorize the formation of prince exercises with the 16th Hussars, who rifle corps, as well as of artillery corps and are stationed in the city.
companies in maritime towns with forts and “,
“Mr. Fisher, who is to be the tutor for batteries, the prince applied himself to the Oxford, was also in Holyrood. Law and his- study of the means of organizing these bodies tory are the subjects on which he is to prepare in such a way as to make them a permanent the prince.”
means of defence, on which the country might His royal highness entered on his Oxford confidently rely upon an emergency. The career soon afterwards, and was to be in resi- results were embodied by him in an elaborate dence for nine months, an arrangement hav- series of "Instructions to Lord-lieutenants," ing been made that before he again returned which he sent to General Peel, as secretary of permanently to town, to take possession of war, on the 20th of May, 1859. It was by him Marlborough House, which had been pre- found to be so complete, that he submitted it pared for him, the new museum in the park three days afterwards to the cabinet, by whom should be opened by the queen and commem- it was adopted, and ordered to be issued oration should be held in the same week. forthwith. Accordingly it was printed and
Marlborough House had been adapted to sent out to the lord-lieutenants throughout the purpose of a picture gallery, containing the kingdom next day (25th May), and formed the Vernon and Turner collection of paint- the code for the organization and working of ings, and as it was now to become the residence
these volunteer corps. of the Prince of Wales, the collection was But at the end of the year he was again removed to the South Kensington Museum, engaged in the promotion of scientific and
, which already contained the “Sheepshanks" social progress. The meeting of the British collection. The new portion, which was twice Association for the Promotion of Science had the breadth of that just mentioned, was built invited him to preside at their meeting, which in six weeks at a cost of £3000, and consisted was to be held at Aberdeen on the 14th of of brick, with fire-proof floors, and the whole September; and to be president involved the structure, planned with a view of holding more delivery of an address. The task was no light or less permanent art and industrial exhibi- one, especially to a fastidious speaker who had
only a general knowledge of science in relation | light from the naturalist, the astronomer from to its aims and objects, but he was just the the physicist and engineer, and so on. And kind of speaker they needed.
all find a field upon which to meet the public During his visit to the Association meeting at large,-invite them to listen to their reports, the prince stayed at the house of Mr. Thom- and even to take part in their discussions,son of Banchory, about five miles from Aber- show to them that philosophers are not vain deen. Here he was met at dinner on the 14th theorists, but essentially men of practice-not by the Duke of Richmond, Lord Rosse, Sir conceited pedants, wrapt up in their own David and Lady Brewster, General and Mrs. mysterious importance, but humble inquirers Sabine, Sir Roderick Murchison, Professor after truth, proud only of what they may have Owen, Professor Phillips, and others. After achieved or won for the general use of man. dinner the whole party drove to Aberdeen, Neither are they daring and presumptuous where the prince delivered his inaugural ad- unbelievers--a character which ignorance has dress to an audience of 2500 people. It occu- sometimes affixed to them who would, like pied fifty minutes in delivery, and was con- the Titans, storm heaven by placing mounfined to general principles, and a comprehen- tain upon mountain, till hurled down from sive statement of the main object of the the height attained by the terrible thunders Association in advancing the arrangement and of outraged Jove; but rather the pious pilclassification of what the prince called “the grims to the Holy Land, who toil on in search universe of knowledge.” The address had of the sacred shrine, in search of truth-God's peculiar interest for men of science, because truth-God's laws as manifested in His works, of the keen sympathy which it showed with in His creation." their pursuits, and for what it did in quicken- Unhappily inventions for the promotion ing the interest of both the public and the of human welfare, however, had not alone government in scientific research.
engaged the attention of scientific men.
UnHe referred with remarkable appropriate- less from the point of view, that the more ness to the recent death of the great naturalist destructive war can be made, the greater is Von Humboldt, and reminded his hearers the probability of nations declining its deadly that the day on which they had met was the arbitration, the “improvements” made in anniversary of the birthday of that distin- weapons at about the period of which we are guished man. His address concluded with speaking can scarcely be regarded as an addisome striking remarks on the advantages and tion to beneficent progress. There were many the true signification of such assemblies as ingenious contrivances in rifles, of which the that at which the Association had invited him Martini-Henry and the Schneider were the to preside :
outcome; bayonets and revolvers underwent “These meetings draw forth the philoso- sundry changes, and there was much contenpher from the hidden recesses of his study, tion on the subject of the superior rapidity call in the wanderer over the field of science and accuracy of firing of one or other of the to meet his brethren, to lay before them the “arms of precision ” which then engaged atresults of his labours, to set forth the deduc- tention. Of course in artillery there was an tions at which he has arrived, to ask for their enormous accession of calibre as well as perexamination, to maintain in the combat of fection of aim and of destructive power, and debate the truth of his positions and the ac- among these the Armstrong gun, invented curacy of his observations. These meetings, and manufactured by Sir William Armstrong, unlike those of any other society, throw open the famous military and naval engineer, held the arena to the cultivators of all sciences to the foremost place. It was found to be a gun their mutual advantage: the geologist learns built up in separate pieces of wrought iron, a from the chemist that there are problems for method that secured the substance from flaw, which he had no clue, but which that science and ensured great strength, lightness, and can solve for him; the geographer receives | durability. The guus were to be built as
DISCOVERIES AND INVENTIONS.
pounders, 70-pounders, and 100-pounders; and mediums of flashing instant intelligence round at a distance of 600 yards, an object of the size the world. of the crown of a hat could be hit at almost There had been a monster steamship every shot. At 3000 yards a target 9 feet launched in 1843, the largest ever built up to square, which at that distance appears a mere that date, named the Great Britain. Her speck, was struck five times out of ten. A length of keel was 289 feet, her main breadth ship conld of course be struck at a much larger above 50 feet; the depth of her hold more distance, and either shot or shell could be than 32 feet, and her tonnage 3444 tons. Her thrown into a fortress five miles off.
commander, Captain Hoskins, received the It was evident that ships armed with these queen on board, and her majesty wished him guns would destroy each other if they con- success on his voyage across the Atlantic. It tinued to be made of timber. Therefore the was a magnificent vessel, and could run, under “Armstrong gun” was supposed to be invalu- favourable circumstances, at a speed of nearly able for fortresses and defences against inva
sixteen statute miles an hour. sion, but useless for ships opposing each other This was a decided success, but many perand equally armed. The “wooden walls," it sons who were believed to be competent judges was believed, could not stand against the tre- declared that there was no advantage in enormendous artillery, and the inference was that mous ships, and that the Great Britain repreto resist it they would have to be put in sented the limit beyond which it would be armour; the Armstrong gun was the fore- difficult to ensure safety or convenience. This, runner of the armour-plated ship. There however, did not prevent the enterprise of were, of
course, other inventions, of which the construction in 1856-1858, of the Great Eastern, Winans, or cigar-shaped steamship with pro- a vessel of much vaster proportions, and of peller amidships, and intended to make the which the chief dining saloon, occupying only voyage across the Atlantic in four days, was a portion of the poop, was 120 feet long, 47 feet one of the most remarkable, though it did not wide, and 9 feet higli under the beams. The fulfil the expectations of its inventors. It is main shaft of the paddle engines weighed manifestly impossible to do more than indi- | 40 tons, the rudder 13 tons. The appointments cate that in every branch of manufacture were to be luxurious, including hot and cold where machinery was employed, as well as in baths, with fresh as well as sea water, handengines of warfare, the implements of civiliza- somely furnished cabins, and arrangements tion, and the means of intercommunication, for the complete comfort of a large number of ingenuity had been stimulated, and the in- passengers of each class. It was computed Vestigations of thoughtful and patient scholars that the vessel would run at the lowest estiand experimentalists had produced marvellous mate 17 or 18 miles an hour-about the speed results.
of a parliamentary train, and great expectaWe shall presently have to return to some tions were formed of the advantage of possessevidences of the great social progress made at ing two or three such vessels to be used in this period as evidenced by various remark- case of war, as troop-ships, by which an army of able inventions and discoveries, but we may 30,000 men might be transported to any part here mention one of the “wonders” of the of Europe in ten days. Of course the expontime, which, though it was far from being a ents of this view had not sufficiently considered surprising success, became associated with the the consequences of such a leviathian filled initiation of one of the most amazing achieve- with troops being intercepted by smaller ships ments known to mankind. The Great Eastern of war, nor had the difficulties of navigating steamship was an experiment of which big- a vessel of that size at points where troops ness was the chief attraction, and it might could be readily disembarked been computed. almost have ceased to be remembered but for The Great Eastern was, so to speak, an expenthe fact that it was afterwards used to convey sive toy. The company originally interested those submarine cables which were to be the l in the construction had to go into “liquida