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the Agamemnon on the port side, but slightly in advance of both. A few miles below the mole the signal was given to form line abreast, and at cable length from each other the line from end to end extended for more than three miles. At 2:40 the signal was given to "chase," and later in the afternoon the review ended with a mock engagement between the principal vessels. The weather was fine, and the spectacle from the point of view of those who regarded it as a great warlike demonstration was magnificent. Most of the members of the House of Commons with the speaker went to see the great show by special steamers provided for their accommodation. It was said that a hundred steam-boats carried spectators, and the royal circle included the three grandduchesses, the Crown-prince of Wurtemburg, the Duke of Mecklenburg, and the Prince of Prussia, so there were plenty of witnesses to report the proceedings not only to the two neutral powers, but to the Emperor of Russia himself. Prince Albert afterwards wrote to Stockmar: "The great naval review has come off, and surpassed all that could have been anticipated. The gigantic ships of war, among them the Duke of Wellington with 131 guns (a greater number than was ever before assembled in one vessel), went, without sails, and propelled only by the screw, eleven miles an hour, and this against wind and tide! This is the greatest revolution effected in the conduct of naval warfare which has yet been known. Steam as well as sailing vessels will of necessity be cast aside as useless, and menof-war with the auxiliary screw will take their place. This will cost a great deal of money till the change is effected, and render many fleets, like the present Russian one, useless. We have already sixteen at sea and ten in an advanced state. France has no more than two, and the other powers none. On Thursday 300 ships and 100,000 men must have been assembled on one spot. The fleet carried 1100 guns and 10,000 men. The weather, moreover, was magnificent, and the impression which the spectacle presented sublime."

Those people in London who had not been to the naval review were soon to witness what to them came nearer in significance-the de

parture of troops by railway or by transport ships, the marching of well-known regiments through the streets, the clang and fanfare of military bands, the tramp of men, and the "shrill squeaking of the wry-necked fife" or the drone of the bagpipe. They were to have part too in leave-takings, that were sad enough, and were remembered afterwards when, during the terrible winter, there came home tidings from the British camp which made men and women wail, and utter complaints that were little short of imprecations against a government which had prepared so ill for war that while men were upon the field to fight the foe, they had to fight cold and hunger and disease also, because food and drink, shelter and clothing, and medicine, and even mules and horses, had either not arrived or were beating about on shipboard at some port where they were useless, or were landed where there were no means of conveying them to the soldiers who starved and froze and sickened, but would not yield till death itself vanquished them.

Before war had been formally declared both France and Russia had sent considerable forces to the East for the protection of Turkey, and to act as might be required for that object. The British army consisted of four divisions commanded by Lieutenant General Sir George Brown, and Major-Generals the Duke of Cambridge, Sir de Lacy Evans, and Sir Richard England, and a division of cavalry under the Earl of Lucan. Altogether 10,000 of our troops left England at the end of February, 1854, and landed at Malta, where they remained till the 31st of March, when they proceeded to Gallipoli, in European Turkey, where the French were already arriving in detachments, Marshal St. Arnaud, former minister of war, being in command, and under him General Canrobert and General Bosquet; a brigade of cavalry under General d'Allonville, and reserves under Prince Napoleon, General Forey, and General Cassargnalles. The number of the French troops was at that time 20,000, or twice as many as our own. The choice of Gallipoli as a basis of operations was that of the Emperor of the French, who had


determined that to fortify that place would be to prevent the Russians from crossing the Balkan; but as a basis of operations it was too far from the Turkish armies and from Constantinople. The emperor had, however, instructed General St. Arnaud that though Gallipoli should be the strategical point and the place of depôt for arms, ambulances, and provisions, that need not prevent the troops from marching forward or lodging one or two divisions at the barracks at the west of Constantinople or at Scutari; while, if, after having advanced towards the Balkans, a movement in retreat should become necessary they would regain the coast of Gallipoli instead of that of Constantinople, because the Russians would never venture from Adrianople to Constantinople with an army of 60,000 good troops on their right flank. These instructions and the attitude afterwards assumed by the French general looked a little too much like taking the initiative of command of the entire allied army for the taste of some people here, but matters soon assumed a regular course. Lord Raglan did not arrive at Gallipoli till May, when more active measures than merely protective dispositions had to be adopted. The war may, in fact, be said to have begun much as it continued. The results were attributable more to the soldiers than to the generals. The French and English worked together harmoniously in a cheerful hearty spirit of emulation in making the seven miles of line of entrenchments on the crest of the ridge from the Gulf of Saros to the Sea of Marmora, just as they afterwards fought like brave comrades whenever there was fighting to be done, and they were allowed to support or relieve each other amidst the tempest of shot and fire. When the works were finished the forces moved to the Bosphorus, the French occupying the European side near Constantinople, and our men landing on the eastern side of the narrow Strait of Scutari.

The positions taken by the allied fleets and the allied armies can only be estimated by reference to the map of Europe, and an acquaintance with the conformation of the territory where hostilities were likely to be commenced. The northern shores of the Black


Sea and also a part of the eastern shore belonged to Russia; the southern, the Asia Minor, and the greater part of the western shore was the territory of Turkey. The Black Sea itself was therefore little other than a lake, but it was the only outlet for Russia on the south, its own sole escape being the deep and narrow channel of the Bosphorus, seventeen miles long and repeatedly contracted to not more than half a mile in breadth, but deep enough to carry large ships of war close to the shore throughout its entire course. This channel passes between Constantinople and Scutari, and, flowing into the Sea of Marmora, may be said to reappear as a westward waterway under the name of the Dardanelles, which flow for forty miles till they reach the Mediterranean. It is little to be wondered at that the sultans of Turkey had always claimed the right to exclude foreign ships of war from both these channels,-a right which was confirmed by the five great powers of Europe in the treaty of 1841, which was the latest of several treaties having the same object. By its provisions the sultan had power to close the straits against all foreign vessels of war, and at the same time was bound to exclude any such force in time of peace. In time of war, however, he might admit a foreign fleet; and this proviso enabled him, in such a contingency, to shut up the western outlet of Russia, and actually to confine the Russian fleet to the Black Sea. No other equitable arrangement would have been possible except that of leaving the straits entirely open to the navies of the world, and that would have illsuited Russia, since it would have abolished the exclusive policy which left her influence foremost in Eastern Europe, and enabled her eagerly to watch for an opportunity of absorbing not only the straits, but Constantinople itself, or at all events of holding both in subjection by her influence on the Ottoman government.

We have already tried to show that it is no part of the purpose of these pages to give prominence to deeds of war, or to show to each reader the soldier standing in front and becoming the figure

"That hides the march of men from us."

And yet such was the position which the came uppermost; and his humour, the quality nation chose to take during the earlier part which made him popular, and often not only of the Crimean war, that comparatively little saved him from defeat but secured his success, attention was paid even to some important had in it much of the Irish quality. It was measures brought before parliament, and amusing, althongh it is somewhat painful, other equally important occurrences in society. to note the thrill of aversion with which

Our soldiers and sailors deserved all the people holding certain dogmatic opinions were honour that they received, for they were affected by some of Lord Palmerston's sayings, actuated by a simple desire bravely to do that were uttered in perfect good faith as their duty, and they did it nobly; but the maxims of practical experience and without war fever had hold of the body of the nation. any reference whatever to so-called religious People suffering from its delirium, would doctrines. This of course does not wholly talk of little else than the Crimea and Sebas- apply to his answer to the Presbytery of Edintopol. Lord Palmerston had, as he was sure burgh, who had written to be informed whether to do, made a distinct reputation as home it was proposed, on account of the epidemic secretary. He gave his mind to the work of cholera, to appoint a day of national fast with his usual originality and blunt deter- and humiliation. His reply gave great ofmined common sense, and he was as indifferent fence at first, and it was probably designed as as ever to opinions with which he had no a smart rebuke. “ There can be no doubt," sympathy. Yet by his never failing bonhomie it said, “ that manifestations of humble reand shrewd wit he contrived to avoid making signation to the Divine will and sincere enemies. Only very earnest and deeply serious acknowledgments of human unworthiness are people, who would not accept his worldly never more appropriate than when it has philosophy for true wisdom, were long at pleased Providence to afflict mankind with variance with him, and even these could some severe visitation ; but it does not appear scarcely be proof against his inveterate good to Lord Palmerston that a national fast would

a humour. Between him and Cobden and be suitable to the circumstances of the present Bright, and men of their school, there could be moment. The Maker of the universe has no real agreement, and Palmerston himself established certain laws of nature for the did not pretend that any such agreement was planet on which we live, and the weal or woe possible. He seems almost to have gone out of mankind depends upon the observance or of his way to make himself appear as flip- the neglect of these laws. One of these laws pant and irreverent as he was accused of connects health with the absence of those being, for the purpose of showing how little gaseous exhalations which proceed from overhe cared for the remonstrances and the op- crowded human beings, or from decomposing position of Mr. Bright; and though during his substances whether animal or vegetable; and home secretaryship he said and did things these same laws render sickness the almost which were afterwards incontrovertible, he inevitable consequence of exposure to these contrived to say them in such a way as to

noxious influences. But it has at the same appear to carry a contemptuous expression to time pleased Providence to place it within the strait-laced and orthodox persons who (as power of man to make such arrangements as he clearly saw) regarded him with suspicion, will prevent or disperse such exhalations so as while they sought to influence his proceedings. to render them harmless, and it is the duty of In cases where most other ministers would man to attend to these laws of nature and to have thought it prudent merely to make exert the faculties which Providence has thus a brief statement or to give a simple reply, given to man for his own welfare. The recent Palmerston could not refrain from giving his visitation of cholera, which has for the moment reasons, for the sake, as it would seem, of been mercifully checked, is an awful warning challenging an adverse opinion. There was given to the people of this realm that they have an Irish side of his character which constantly I too much neglected their duty in this respect,



and that those persons with whom it rested the head of what was known as the Broad to purify towns and cities, and to prevent or Church, as the leader of those young and remove the causes of disease, have not been generous enthusiasts who desired to make sufficiently active in regard to such matters. their religion a living power, and who thereLord Palmerston would therefore suggest that fore advocated what has been called Christian the best course which the people of this socialism. We have already glanced at the country can pursue to deserve that the further position taken by Charles Kingsley and others progress of the cholera should be stayed, will in relation to the often painful and always be to employ the interval that will elapse be- solemn social problems of the time. It is tween the present time and the beginning of enough here to say that Mr. Maurice was the next spring in planning and executing mea- master to whose pure and unselfish teaching sures by which those portions of their towns they had listened, and by whom their religious and cities which are inhabited by the poorest opinions had been greatly influenced. Mr. classes, and which, from the nature of things, Maurice made no secret of his views on the most need purification and improvement, may subject of the professed doctrine of eternal be freed from those causes and sources of con- punishment, and it was to a correspondence tagion which, if allowed to remain, will in- on this subject, as it was treated in his Theofallibly breed pestilence and be fruitful in logical Essays, that the attention of the death in spite of all the prayers and fastings council of the college was directed by Prinof a united but inactive nation. When man cipal Jelf. The council came to the conclusion has done his utmost for his own safety then that the opinions set forth and the doubts is the time to invoke the blessing of Heaven expressed in the essay were of a dangerous to give effect to his exertions."

tendency, and likely to unsettle the minds of Of course this was not an exhaustive answer, theological students; and that the continuance and a good deal might reasonably have been of Mr. Maurice's connection with the college said against so rough and ready a way of re- would be seriously detrimental to its usefulply; but it was not an irreverent one, and there

It was in vain for him to remonstrate, were but too many obvious proofs in the calling upon the council to state which of the streets that the Scottish as well as the Eng- articles of faith condemned his teaching. lish municipal authorities had not faithfully “I cannot, my lords and gentlemen," he said, attended to their immediate duties. There “ believe that, great as are the privileges which was an outcry against the letter, of course, and the right reverend bench has conceded to the while some of the religious sections of the com- principal of the King's College, their lordships, munity denounced it from their point of view, the bishops, ever intended to give him an it was made use of by unscrupulous satirists authority superior to their own, superior to as the foundation for a jest to the effect that that of the articles by which they are bound. the ex-foreign minister treated Heaven itself I cannot think that they wish to constitute as a “foreign power;" but the jest was a very him and the council, arbiters of the theology poor one-so poor that its want of reverence of the English Church. Such a claim would was not to be excused for its wit.

be as alarming, I apprehend, to the public as to

our ecclesiastical rulers. If some parents have This was in the autumn of 1853, and there been suspicious of the influence I might exwere at that time other symptoms of orthodox ercise over their sons, I believe that there are significance, one of them being the dismissal few parents in England who will not complain of the Rev. Frederic Denison Maurice from that the college has departed from its original the professorships of ecclesiastical history and principle when it gives such a scope to the of English literature in King's College. Mr. private judgment of its chief officer, or even Maurice had long been as remarkable for his to the judgment of the body which manages piety and simplicity of character as for his its affairs.

If I have violated any attainments. He was perhaps not so much law of the church, that law can be at once


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pointed out; the nature of the transgression letter under his administration of the homecan be defined without any reference to pos- office. He had spoken pretty plainly to the sible tendencies and results.”

Edinburgh corporation, and in London the These representations were of no avail; the provisions of the public health acts were being council “did not think it necessary to enter enforced in a very practical fashion. Foul further into the subject.” The two chairs held neighbourhoods were being destroyed or disby Mr. Maurice were declared vacant, and infected; the smoke of factory chimneys was were filled respectively by Dr. A. M'Caul and abated, churchyards were being closed and Mr. G. W. Dasent, whose orthodoxy was pre- sealed with cement, and he declined even to sumably unquestioned, or who at all events exercise the right of making privileged excepmay be supposed to have said nothing to lead tions to the law against intramural interto its being suspected. But the dismissal of | ments. In answer to Lord Stanley of AldersMr. Maurice from the professorships made ley, who had written for special permission him none the less a professor. The men who for the interment of the remains of a church had been his pupils remained his friends, and dignitary beneath the sacred edifice, he said: he remained, until his too early death, the “The practice of burying dead bodies under recognized leader and teacher of a “school” buildings in which living people assemble in of religious thought which included many of large numbers is a barbarous one, and ought the best and noblest of the large number of to be at once and for ever put an end to... those who have since, without rebuke, openly And why, pray, should archbishops and bishops, avowed opinions for holding which he was and deans and canons, be buried under churches deemed unworthy to be recognized as if other people are not to be so? What special Christian teacher.

connection is there between church dignities It may be worth while here to note that and the privilege of being decomposed under only a month after Mr. Maurice had been the feet of survivors? ... As to what discharged from his appointments at King's you say about pain to feelings by shutting up College Dr. Colenso was consecrated Bishop of burial-grounds, that is perfectly true. I of Natal by the Archbishop of Canterbury, am quite aware that the measure is necessarily the Bishop of London, and the Bishop of Lin- attended with pain to feelings which excite coln. At the same time Dr. Armstrong was respect, as well as to pressure upon pecuniary appointed to the other new see of Grahams- interests which are not undeserving of contown, and the Bishop of Oxford preached the sideration. But no great measure of social consecration sermon, taking for his text the improvement can be effected without some words, “Separate me Barnabas and Saul.” He temporary inconvenience to individuals, and spoke with such positive intensity of the the necessity of the case justifies the demand certainty of the call to the sacred office to for such sacrifices. To have attempted to make which both the new bishops had been ap- the application of the new system gradual pointed that the sermon on this occasion, the would have reduced it to a nullity. England demands of a declaration of orthodoxy, and the is, I believe, the only country in which in limits of the articles of profession of faith with these days people accumulate putrefying dead regard to certain supposed dogmas, all became bodies amid the dwellings of the living; and significantly prominent topics of discussion as to burying bodies under thronged churches, when, nine years afterwards, Bishop Colenso, you might as well put them under libraries, the heterodox, was prohibited from preaching drawing-rooms, and dining-rooms." in the churches of most English dioceses. Such language as this would have been

cynical if employed by most men; but it was It might have been thought that Palmer- a part of Palmerston's “ common sense" reston had enough to occupy even his untiring lieved by a jaunty expression. It is astonishindustry in carrying out the sanitary measures ing how few people were offended by plain which he was determined should be no dead utterances which, though they read somewhat


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