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miles of the shore, and about twenty shells were landed inside of the rebel intrenchments, with THE what effect, however, we are unable to determine.

The "duel at long range" lasted about two hours. The firing caused the most intense excitement. The docks and water-fronts facing the scene of action were thronged with spectators, and the ramparts of the fort were lined with officers and men anxiously watching the bombardment. After powder, balls, and shells enough had been expended, the order "to cease firing" was signalized, and the six gunboats returned to their stations. The official report I have not been able to obtain as yet.

This little episode, short and bloodless as it turned out, on our part at least, should not fail to be a lesson to all concerned. Here, in broad daylight, the regular boat plying between two points occupied by our forces is attacked by the rebels, who daringly approached to within almost point-blank range of the guns of the war vessels and captured a schooner worth about two thousand five hundred dollars, and is allowed to escape. We have at the present moment quite a flotilla of gunboats in this harbor, but they are all huddled together. If only one of them had been stationed a little nearer Newport News, in a hollow termed "Holmes' Hole" the rebels would not have dared to venture on such an expedition. None of our gunboats were within six miles of the firing on the Express, and before this vessel could run that distance, inform the Commodore of the facts, and this official order the boats under way, at least one hour elapsed, and the intrepid rebels accomplished all they desired.

Besides several thousand gallons of good water on board of the Sherwood, a new pump, worth three hundred dollars, fell into the enemy's hands. It is to be hoped that the Navy Department at Hampton Roads will be more on the qui vive, and that our efficient Commodore will allow those vessels having guns of heavy calibre on board to plant an occasional shell into the enemy's stronghold on the opposite shore.

What the Department at Washington say to this affair is beyond my comprehension; but I do know that the same is viewed as disgraceful in the extreme by all parties on this point. The passengers, and, in fact, all hands on board of the Express, behaved in a shameful manner, with the exception of a midshipman of the United States frigate Congress, and a sick Zouave coming to the General Hospital, both of whom behaved in a gallant manner, and were the only ones on board who had presence of mind to hoist the American ensign, which had not been flying at the time she left Newport News. It is to be hoped that the squadron will do something now to avenge the outrage committed so wantonly on an unarmed vessel.

Doc. 243.


UNITED STATES STEAMER MOUNT VERNON, OFF WILMINGTON, N. C., Dec. 31, 1861. SIR: I have to report to you that, having observed that the rebels made use of a lightship, which was formerly on the Frying-Pan Shoals, as a beacon for guiding vessels in and out of the harbor, and for the purpose of annoying us by hoisting lights at night, I determined to take advantage of a hazy night, with the wind off shore, to effect her destruction. I therefore sent the cutter and gig last night, at midnight, to destroy her, if possible. The cutter I placed in command of Acting-Master Alick Allen, with Mr. John P. Foote, coast-pilot, and a crew of five men, who were all well armed. This boat was also well supplied with combustible materials for the purpose of firing the vessel. The gig was under the command of Acting-Master Henry L. Sturges, and had a crew of six men, who were also well armed. In going in this boat took the lead, and while the cutter was alongside the light vessel she laid off on her oars, ready to support her in the event of an attack being made. From the officers in command of the boats I gather the following particulars:

within a short distance of the light vessel, on The boats pulled in together until they got the off side of her from Fort Caswell. The cutter then pulled under the starboard quarter of the vessel, and by the assistance of a rope found hanging there, two officers, a boatswain's They found that she was quite deserted, and that mate and a quartermaster, climbed on board. carpenters had recently been at work on her, putting up additional berths, and cutting gunports. She was pierced for eight guns, six broadside, and two after guns, and had the fighting bolts in the deck, and every thing nearly ready for mounting the guns. It was evidently intended to arm her for harbor defence. Combustibles were collected, saturated with turpentine, and set on fire. The fire was discovered from the fort, which was so near that voices could be heard giving the alarm, but no effort was made to molest the boats until they were out of sight. The fort then opened fire from her great guns in the direction of the boats, but they were far removed from harm's way, and we had the pleasure of seeing the vessel burn to the water's edge, and at this time not a vestige of her is to be seen.

and man in this ship was a volunteer for this It gives me pleasure to state that every officer expedition. Much credit is due to the officers and men of this expedition, for the able manner in which they discharged this hazardous duty. I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

O. S. GLISSON, Commanding U. S. N. To Flag-officer L. M. GOLDSBOrough, Commanding the Atlantic blockading squadron.

Doc. 244.


BEACH GROVE, KY., Dec. 16, 1861.

of your wives and daughters, your past renown,
and the fair name of your posterity, forbid that
you should strike for Lincoln and the abolition
of slavery, against those struggling for the rights
and independence of your kindred race! Strike
with us for independence and the preservation of
your property, and those Northern invaders of
your soil will soon be driven across the Ohio.

Doc. 245.



SHIP ISLAND, Thursday, Jan. 2, 1862.

THE expedition to Biloxi was eminently successful, resulting in the surrender of the place to the Federal forces, the reduction of the for│tification, and the capture of a schooner laden with lumber, and all without firing a gun.

To the People of Southeastern Kentucky: The brigade I have the honor to command is here for no purpose of war upon Kentuckians, but to repel those Northern hordes who, with arms in their hands, are attempting the subjugation of a sister Southern State. They have closed your rivers, embargoed your railroads, cut off your natural and proper markets, left your stock and produce on hand almost valueless, and thereby almost destroyed the value of your lands and labor. We have come to open again your rivers, to restore the ancient markets for your produce, and thereby to return to you the accustomed value of your lands and labor. They have represented us as murderers and outlaws. We have come to convince you that we truly respect the laws, revere justice, and mean to give security to your personal and property The expedition consisted of the United States rights. They have forced many of you to take gunboats Water Witch, Lieut. Aaron K. Hughes, up arms against us. We come to take you by commanding; New London, Lieut. Abner Reed, the hand as heretofore-as friends and brothers. commanding; and the Lewis, Lieut. Thomas Their Government has laid heavy taxes on you McKean Buchanan, commanding. In addition to carry on this unnatural war-one object of to the regular officers and crews of the several which is openly avowed to be to set at liberty steamers, detachments of forty-five marines your slaves, and the ensuing steps in which will|from the guards of the flagship Niagara and be to put arms in their hands, and give them the steamer Massachusetts, and commanded by political and social equality with yourselves. Lieut. George Butler, of the Niagara, and two We saw these things in the beginning, and are boats' crews from the Massachusetts, accomoffering our hearts' blood to avert those dread- panied the expedition, which was a purely ful evils which we saw the abolition leaders had naval enterprise, the whole being under comdeliberately planned for the South. "All men mand of Commander Melancton Smith, of the must have the BALLOT or none-all men inust Massachusetts. have the bullet or none," said Mr. Seward, the present Federal Secretary of State. How long will Kentuckians close their eyes to the contemplated ruin of their present structure of society? How long will they continue to raise their arms against brothers of the South struggling for those rights, and for that independence common to us all, and which was guaranteed to all by the Constitution of 1787? For many long years we remonstrated against the encroachments on the rights, and the insecurity to that property thus guaranteed, which these Northern hordes so remorselessly inflicted upon us. They became deaf to our remonstrances, because they believe they had the power, and felt in every fibre the will to "whip us in." We have disappointed them. We have broken their columns in almost every conflict. We have early acquired a prestige of success which has stricken terror into the Northern heart. Their "grand armies" have been held in check by comparatively few but stern-hearted men; and now they would invoke Kentucky valor to aid them in beating down the true sons of the South who have stood the shock, and in bringing common ruin upon Kentucky and her kindred people. Will you play this unnatural part, Kentuckians? Heaven forbid!] The memories of the past forbid! The honor

The Lewis was formerly employed as a freight and passenger boat between New Orleans and Mobile, and, since her capture by the New London, has been fitted up as a gunboat. She carries a crew of one hundred men, and her armament consists of one twenty-pound Parrott gun, rifled, two twelve-pound rifled guns for James' projectiles, one twenty-four-pound Dahlgren howitzer, and two twelve-pound howitzers. She is a lofty steamer, and offers altogether too prominent a mark for the enemy. Being of light draught, however, she can approach nearer the track usually taken by the gunboats and steamers of the enemy.

The expedition got under way at seven o'clock on the morning of the 31st ult., and steamed across the Mississippi Sound toward Biloxi. The weather was fine, and every thing bid fair for a brush with the enemy, inasmuch as previous reconnoissances had discovered a battery of apparent strength near the lighthouse, and a few weeks previous armed men had been seen there.

As the steamers approached the place, which, like all the towns of any note along the Gulf coast, is incorporated, the inhabitants were seen hurrying to and fro in evident alarm at the demonstration.

The Lewis steamed up to within about a mile

of the "city," while the New London and Water
Witch, owing to their heavy draft, were com-
pelled to anchor outside, but within range to
cover the movements of the advance force. Not
succeeding in drawing the fire of the battery,
Commander Smith decided to anchor the fleet,
and proceeded with a flag of truce to the shore.
Commander Smith, accompanied by Acting-to
Master Ryder, of the Massachusetts, landed at
the wharf, near the light, and were met by two
or three men, of whom they requested to see
the Mayor of the city. A crowd soon collect-
ed, one of whom was armed with a double-bar-
relled gun, an old cavalry sword, and a silver-
mounted Colt's revolver, both of which he per-
sisted in wearing on the same side of his belt,
and appeared to be the commander of the bat-
tery. While some of the citizens went off in
quest of the chief magistrate, some twenty-five
or thirty men, armed with shot guns, were seen
lurking around the battery and parade-ground
in the rear. The sailors entered into conversa-
tion with the citizens, some of whom pretended
to be loyal, and said they were afraid to express
their Union sentiments for fear of being lynched.
While the husbands and children were on the
wharf, awaiting the result of the demonstration,
a few frightened wives and mothers were seen
peering from behind buildings, out of windows,
and from the cover of the shrubbery, with their
hoods drawn over their faces, looking with in-
tense anxiety upon the group at the pier. The
citizens, male and female, gathered in knots on
the principal street, and discussed the subject
of the invasion.


confer with his constituents, returning at the expiration of the hour.

The Mayor, on his return, was accompanied by Judge Holley, Dr. Frazer, a French physician, and several citizens. The Mayor, addressing Commander Sinith, said: "Sir, I surrender you the town of Biloxi and the battery, owing the utter impossibility of defending it; but I cannot guarantee you any safety outside the limits of the town." Commander Smith assured the Mayor and the citizens that we came for the purpose of removing the guns from the battery, and at the same time to protect them in their lawful occupation. He had no desire or orders to interfere with their institutions or to land troops. He told them that he intended to make good Union men of their citizens in spite of themselves, but the Mayor replied: "Don't flatter yourself;" and a rabid secessionist-the cavalry officer-added: "Old Abe Lincoln will never make a Union man of me; I'll pack myself and wife in a buggy and be off for New Orleans." Some of the other citizens manifested a similar spirit, but, on being shown the folly of their course, concluded to remain.

After examining the battery, Commander Smith returned to the Lewis and ordered away two large boats, the same which were brought out on the Constitution, and they proceeded, under command of Acting-Master Ryder, accompanied by Acting-Master Merriam and Midshipman Woodward, of the Lewis, to the wharf, for the purpose of bringing off the guns. The crews dismounted two guns-one light and one heavy six-pounder-and carried them to the boats, and returning took off the carriagesboth pivots of "home manufacture"—and platforms. While thus engaged, the Union sailors were watching a crowd of about twenty boys and men, mostly foreigners, who sat around; and as the guns were being removed inquired sarcastically: "We expect a thousand men here; will you come and take 'um then as easy? Do you think you can take the guns at New Or leans as easy?" As the work of dismantling the fort progressed, the rebels grew generous, and exclaimed, seeing the carriages and platforms going, "You'd better take these planks and the coffee-bags-we've got a plenty of them."

The battery was constructed of bricks, flanked and faced with sand-bags. It was capable of mounting six or eight heavy guns, but unless more skill is displayed in mounting the batteries in other places than was evinced here, they will not prove very effective in a cross-fire. The guns in this battery were placed upon stationary beds, which received the recoil only in a direct line of fire, any deviation from which would dismount the piece.

That the fears of the people of the South have been worked upon by the rebel leaders, is evident from the intense alarm occasioned by the landing of the Federal force at Biloxi. The deepest anxiety was depicted on every countenance, and the people betrayed by their looks

They were shy at first, and kept aloof from the Federal officers; but seeing no harm offered them, they gradually became cominunicative, and when asked the news, said that telegraphic messages had been received announcing that England had declared war against the United States. Finding this intelligence did not surprise the officers, they acknowledged that the reports which they received were very contradictory, and in evidence, said they had heard that there were six thousand troops on Ship Island, and again that there were forty thousand.

After a short time the Mayor, an old man about sixty, made his appearance, armed with a shot gun, which he left at the head of the pier, seeing that his visitors wore only their sidearms. He inquired the object of the visit, to which Commander Smith replied: "I have come to demand the surrender of the town, with all the fortifications, battery, and vessels in the waters, and all military and warlike stores." His honor inquired what length of time would be allowed them to remove the women and children. Capt. Smith replied that there was no necessity for the women and children retiring unless they intended to offer resistance, and he would give him one hour in which to consult the citizens on the subject. The Mayor wanted an armistice of twenty-four hours, but finding Capt. Smith inflexible, he went off to

and conversation their fears that all the horrors of a sacked and pillaged town awaited them. The women especially were in the highest state of frenzy, and clung to the skirts of the Mayor for protection and advice as he was going to consult the citizens. They had been told that the Northern soldiers were a set of barbarians, and given to pillage and rapine. But not even a pin's value was taken by the sailors from any private dwelling, not an indecent word spoken, and no intrusion or insult offered to any of the citizens, whose astonishment at the behavior of our men was only equalled by their previous fright.

fore a lawful prize. The Spanish captain and two creoles surrendered without resistance. The captain has a wife and child in New Orleans, from which place he has kept aloof through fear of being impressed into the rebel army. He is a strong Union man, and refuses to fight against the "Stars and Stripes," although sailing under a Confederate States register to support his family. He plead hard to have his vessel given up to him, as it was all he had in the world, and offered, if released, to return with a cargo of sweet potatoes. All feel that the latter would go far to relieve the severity of camp regimen, but the usages of war rather interfere with the gratification of the appetite, and Signor l'Capitano, his mate and cook, will be retained here for the present.

The people appeared to be in a very destitute condition, some wanting shoes, some clothing, and others bread. One smart-looking lad said to his mother, in the hearing of the officers, "I don't care if I do get taken prisoner," to which the other replied, "Nor I either, for then I shall be sure to get enough to eat." Another chap of rebellious tendencies said: "I've heard some talk of starving us into submission, but they'll have to put a blockade on the mullet (a kind of fish) before they can do this." A little boy approached Mid. Woodward, and with a wishful air and beseeching tone said: “Oh, Mister, if you'll only bring me one handful of coffee, I'll give you any thing-'lasses, sugar or any thing!" An old man made a similar proposal to Mr. Freeman, who asked him if they were short of any thing, to which he made answer: "My God, we are short of every thing. I haven't tasted coffee or tea these four months." He added: "If you like I'll show you some of the stuff we use for tea," and going off soon returned with a

Doc. 246.

bunch of dry herbage-large leaves on the stalk, THE REBEL GENERALS OF THE SOUTH. which grows near the ground and resembles oak leaves.

While in pursuit of the schooner, Mr. Freeman discovered seven boats filled with men, women, and children, who were making their escape from Biloxi to Ocean Springs and Pascagoula. It not being the design of Commander Smith to hold Biloxi, the expedition returned to Ship Island the same evening, and at the earliest convenience further demonstrations will be made against such movable property of the rebels as is required at this point.

The Water Witch and New London did not participate in the affair, the credit of which belongs to the Lewis. It being the first exploit of the steamer since her conversion to the Union cause, her officers are receiving congratulations on all sides.


1. Samuel Cooper, Virginia, adjutant general. 2. Albert S. Johnston, Texas, commanding in Kentucky.

3. Joseph E. Johnston, Virginia, commanding Northern Virginia.

South Atlantic coast.
4. Robert E. Lee, Virginia, commanding

Though the town possessed many natural beauties of redeeming qualities, still every thing bore a neglected appearance. The place seemed deserted, and no signs of thrift or business were observed. The male population capable of bearing arms had gone to the war, while old men and boys were enrolled as Home Guards. There were not more than fifty men in the place, and about five hundred women and children.

If the towns and hamlets in the North were to make this sacrifice, how long would the rebels defy the power of the Federal Government?

While all this was transpiring on shore, a schooner was discovered working her way back of Deer Island into Biloxi Bay. Acting-Master Freeman, executive officer of the Lewis, manned a boat and went in pursuit. After rowing about nine miles, he succeeded in overhauling the vessel, which proved to be the schooner Capt. Speeden, Capt. Francisco Marteniz, who was the sole owner. She was loaded with thirty thousand feet of hard pine flooring boards, (right handy for the tent floors,) and was on her way to New Orleans from Honsboro', where there are several saw-mills employing a large number of negroes in sawing lumber. The cargo belonged to a secessionist in Biloxi, and was there-tomac.

ing Army of Potomac.
5. P. G. T. Beauregard, Louisiana, command-


1. David E. Twiggs, Georgia, resigned. 2. Leonidas Polk, Louisiana, commanding at Memphis.

3. Braxton Bragg, Louisiana, commanding at Pensacola.

4. Earl Van Dorn, Mississippi, Army of Potomac.

5. Gustavus W. Smith, Kentucky, Army of. Potomac.

6. Theophilus H. Holmes, North Carolina, Army of Potomac.

7. William J. Hardee, Georgia, Missouri. 8. Benjamin Huger, South Carolina, commanding at Norfolk.

9. James Longstreet, Alabama, Army of Po

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