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cannot doubt but we shall defeat all their wicked enterprizes and designs.-We cannot however forbear, out of the great and tender concern we have to preserve the people of England, and particularly those great and popular cities, from the cruel rage and bloody revenge of the Papists, to require and expect from all the lord-lieutenants, deputy-lieutenants, and justices of the peace, lord mayors, mayors, sheriffs, and all other magistrates and officers, civil and military, of all counties, cities and towns of England, especially of the county of Middlesex, and cities of London and Westminster, and parts adjacent, that they do immediately disarm and secure, as by law they may and ought, within their respective counties, cities and jurisdictions, all Papists whatsoever, as persons at all times, but now especially, most dangerous to the peace and safety of the government, that so, not only all power of mischief may be taken from them, but that the laws, which are the greatest and best security, may resume their force, and be strictly executed. And we do hereby likewise declare, that we will protect and defend all those who shall not be afraid to do their duty in obedience to these laws. And that for those magistrates and others, of what condition soever they be, who shall refuse to assist us, and, in The Petition of several Lords to the King for obedience to the laws, to execute rigorously, calling a Parliament.] Soon after this, most what we have required of them, and suffer of the Protestant lords, both spiritual and temthemselves, at this juncture, to be cajoled and poral, who were then in London, namely, the terrified out of their duty, we will esteem them abp. of Canterbury, the abp. of York elect, the most criminal and infamous of all men; the bishops of St. Asaph, Ely, Rochester, Pebetrayers of their religion, the laws, and their terborough and Oxford; the dukes of Grafton native country; resolving to expect and re- and Ormond; the earls of Dorset, Clare, Claquire at their hands the life of every single rendon, Burlington, Anglesey and Rochester; Protestant that shall perish, and every house viscount Newport, and the lords Paget, Chanthat shall be burnt or destroyed by their trea- dois and Ossulston, drew up a Petition, which chery and cowardice.-Given under our Hand was considered, agreed on, and signed at the and Seal, at our Head Quarters at Sherborn-bishop of Rochester's house at Westminster. Castle, the 28th of Nov. 1688. WILLIAM And, though they had heard that his majesty HENRY, Prince of Orange." had protested, he would take it highly ill of any man that should offer him a thing of that nature, yet the two archbishops, with the bishops of Ely and Rochester, ventured to deliver it. The Petition runs in these words:
the providence of God, there were present at his birth so many witnesses of unquestionable credit, as if it seemed the peculiar care of heaven, on purpose to disappoint so wicked and unparalleled an attempt. That, in order to the effecting his ambitious designs, he seemed desirous to submit all to a free Parliament, hoping thereby to ingratiate himself with the people; though nothing was more evident than that a parliament could not be free so long as there was an Army of Foreigners in the heart of his majesty's kingdoms, so that in truth he was the sole obstructer of such a Free Parliament. His majesty being fully resolved, as he had already declared, so soon as by the blessing of God his kingdom should be delivered from this invasion, to call a Parliament, which could no longer be liable to the least objection of not being freely chosen, since his majesty had actually restored all the boroughs and corporations to their ancient rights and privileges. Upon which considerations, and the obligations of their duty and natural obedience, his majesty could no ways doubt, but that all his faithful and loving subjects would readily and heartily concur and join with him in the entire suppressing and repelling of his enemies and rebellious subjects."
The King's Answer to the Prince of Orange's Declaration.] On the 5th of Nov. the Prince of Orange landed at Terbay; soon after which, the King set forth the following Answer to his Declaration :
"May it please your majesty; We your majesty's most loyal subjects, in the deep sense of the miseries of a war, now breaking forth in the bowels of your kingdom, and of the danger to which your majesty's sacred person is thereby like to be exposed, as also of the distractions of your people by reason of the present Grievances, do think ourselves bound in conscience of the duty we owe to God and our holy Religion, to your majesty and our country, most humbly to offer to your maj. that in our opinion, the only visible way to preserve your majesty, and this your kingdom, would be the Calling of a Parliament, regular and free in all its circumstances. We therefore most earnestly beseech your majesty, that you would be graciously pleased with all speed to call such a parliament; wherein we shall be most ready to promote such councils and resolutions of Peace and Settlement in Church and State, as may
"That it was but too evident, by a late Declaration published by the Prince of Orange, that, notwithstanding the many specious and plausible pretences it carries, his Designs in the bottom did tend to nothing less than an absolute usurping of his majesty's crown and royal authority, as might fully appear by his assuming to himself in the said Declaration the regal style, requiring the peers of the realm, both spiritual and temporal, and all other persons of all degrees, to obey and assist him in the execution of his designs; a prerogative inseparable from the imperial crown of this realm: adding, that, for a more undeniable proof of his immoderate ambition, and which nothing could satisfy but the immediate possession of the crown itself, he called in question the legitimacy of the prince of Wales, his majesty's son and heir apparent; though by
conduce to your majesty's honour and safety, and to the quieting the minds of your people. We do likewise humbly beseech your majesty, in the mean time, to use such means [viz. a Treaty with the Prince, and those who had declared for him] for the preventing the effusion of Christian blood, as to your majesty shall seem most meet."
The King's Answer.] This Petition was printed, and two days after, the king set forth the following Answer:
which the court would fright them, to become perfect slaves to their tyrannical insolences and usurpations. For they assured themselves, that no rational and unbiassed person would judge it Rebellion to defend their Laws and Religion, which all English princes have sworn at their coronation; which oath, how well it had been observed of late, they desired a free Parliament might have the consideration of. They indeed owned it rebellion to resist a king that governed by law; but he was always accounted a tyrant that made his will his law; and to resist such an one they justly esteemed no rebellion, but a necessary defence: and on this consideration they doubted not of all honest men's assistance, and humbly hoped for, and implored the great God's protection, that turned the hearts of people as pleased him best; it having been observed, that people could never be of one mind without his inspiration, which had in all ages confirmed that observation, Vox populi est vox Dei."
The King's Proclamation declaring a general Pardon] Soon after this, the ruinous state of the king's affairs produced the following Proclamation: "That for the Security of all persons both in their elections and service in Parliament, notwithstanding they had taken up arms, or committed any act of hostility, or been any way aiding or assisting therein and for the better assurance thereof, his majesty had directed a General Pardon to all his subjects to be forthwith prepared to pass his great seal. And for the reconciling all the public breaches, and obliterating the very memory of all past miscarriages, his majesty did hereby exhort, and kindly admonish all his loving subjects, to dispose themselves to elect such persons for their representatives in Parliament, as might not be biassed by prejudice or passion, but qualified with parts, experience and pru
"My Lords; What you ask of me, I most passionately desire; and I promise upon the faith of a king, that I will have a Parliament, and such a one as you ask for, as soon as ever the prince of Orange has quitted this realin: for how is it possible a parliament should be free in all its circumstances, as you petition for, while an enemy is in the kingdom, and can make a return of near a hundred voices ?"
Lord Devonshire's Paper.] The sense of the nation at this alarming period may be collected from the two following Papers, the first of which was delivered to the mayor of Derby by the earl of Devonshire, and the second was subscribed by a great number of the nobility, gentry, &c. at Nottingham.
"That as with grief they apprehended the calamities that might arise from the landing of a foreign army in this kingdom, so they could not but deplore the occasion given for it, by so many invasions made of late years on their Religion and Laws. And, whereas they could not think of any other expedient to compose their differences, and prevent effusion of blood, than that which procured a Settlement in these kingdoms, after the late Civil Wars, viz. the meeting and sitting of a Parliament, freely and duly chosen, they thought themselves obliged, as far as in them lay, to promote it; and the rather, because the Prince of Orange, as appeared by his Declaration, was willing to sub-dence, proper for this conjuncture." init his own pretensions, and all other matters, to their determination. They heartily wished, and bumbly prayed, that his majesty would consent to this expedient, in order to a future Settlement, and hoped that such a temperament might be thought of, as that the army then on foot might not give any interruption to the proceedings of a parliament. But if, to the great misfortune and ruin of these kingdoms, it should prove otherwise, they farther declared, that they would to their utmost defend the Protestant Religion, the laws of the kingdom, and the Rights and Liberties of the subject."
The Nottingham Paper.] "That not being willing to deliver their posterity over to such a condition of Popery and Slavery, as their oppressions inevitably threatened, they would, to the utmost of their power, oppose the same, by joining with the Prince of Orange, for the recovery of their almost ruined laws, liberties and Religion. And herein they hoped all good Protestant subjects would, with their lives and fortunes, be assistant to them, and not be bugbeared with the opprobrious terms of rebels, by VOL. V.
The King's Proposals to the Prince of Orange.] What followed next, were the Proposals in behalf of the king, by the lords Halifax, Nottingham and Godolphin, to the prince of Orange, viz:
"Sir; The king commanded us to acquaint you, that he observeth all the difference and causes of complaint, alledged by your highness, seem to be referred to a free Parliament. His majesty, as he hath already declared, was resolved before this to call one; but thought, that, in the present state of affairs, it was adviseable to defer it till things were more composed; yet, seeing that his people still continue to desire it, he hath put forth his Proclamation in order to it, and hath issued his writs for the calling of it. And to prevent any cause of interruption in it, he will consent to every thing that can be reasonably required for the security of those that shall come to it. His majesty hath therefore sent us to attend your highness for the adjusting of all matters that shall be agreed to be necessary to the freedom of elections, and the security of sitting, and is ready immediately to enter into a treaty in
order to it. His majesty proposes, that, in the | readily attended, made this memorable Declamean time, the respective armies may be res- ration: trained within such limits, and at such a dis- "We doubt not but the world believes that tance from London, as may prevent the ap-in this great and dangerous conjuncture, we are heartily and zealously concerned for the Protestant Religion, the Laws of the land, and the Liberties and Properties of the subject. And we did reasonably hope, that the king having issued out his proclamation and writs for a Free Parliament, we might have rested secure under the expectation of that meeting: but his majesty having withdrawn himself, and, as we apprehend, in order to his departure out of this kingdom, by the pernicious councils of persons ill-affected to our nation and religion, we cannot, without being wanting to our duty, be silent under these calamities, wherein Popish councils, which so long prevailed, have miserably involved this realin. We do therefore unanimously resolve to apply ourselves to his highness the Prince of Orange, who, with so great kindness to these kingdoms, such vast expence, and so much hazard to his own person, has undertaken, by endeavouring to procure a Free Parliament, to rescue us, with as little effusion, as possible, of Christian blood, from the imminent dangers of Slavery and Popery.
And we do hereby declare, that we will, with our utmost endeavours, assist his highness in the obtaining such a parliament with all speed, wherein our Laws, our Liberties and Properties may be secured, and the Church of England in particular, with a duc liberty to Protestant Dissenters; and in general, that the Protestant religion and interest over the whole world may be supported and encouraged, to the glory of God, the happiness of the established government in these kingdoms, and the advantage of all princes and states in Christendom, that may be herein concerned. In the mean time we will endeavour to preserve, as much as in us lies, the peace and security of these great and populous cities of London and Westminster, and the parts adjacent, by taking care to disarm all Papists, and secure all Jesuits and Romish priests, who are in or about the same. And if there be any thing more to be performed by us, for promoting his highness's generous intentions for the public good, we shall be ready to do it, as occasion shall require."
prehensions that the parliament may be in any kind disturbed; being desirous that the meeting of it may be no longer delayed, than it must be, by the usual and necessary forms."
His Highness's Answer.] To which the Prince gave the following Answer: "We, with the advice of the lords and gentlemen assembled with us, have, in Answer, made these following Proposals. 1. That all Papists, and all such persons as are not qualified by law, be disarmed, disbanded, and removed from all employments, civil and military. 2. That all Proclamations which reflect upon us, be recalled; and that if any persons, for having assisted us, have been committed, that they be forthwith set at liberty. 3. That for the security and safety of the city of London, the custody and government of the Tower be immediately put into the hands of the said city. 4. That if his majesty shall think fit to be at London, during the sitting of the parliament, that we may be there also, with equal number of our guards or if his majesty shall please to be in any place from London, whatever distance he thinks fit, that we may be at a place of the same distance; and that the respective armies be from London 30 miles; and that no farther forces be brought into the kingdom. 5. That for the security of the city of London, and their trade, Tilbury Fort be put into the hands of the said city. 6. That a sufficient part of the Public Revenue be assigned us, for the support and maintenance of our troops, until the sitting of a Free Parliament. 7. That to prevent the landing of the French, or other foreign troops, Portsmouth may be put into such hands, as by his majesty and us shall be agreed on."
The King leaves Whitehall, and throws the Great Seal into the Thames.] Notwithstanding this Treaty, the king, resolving to take sanctuary in France, first, by letter, disbanded his Army, and then ordered all those writs to be burnt that were not sent out for the calling of the parliament, and entered a caveat against making use of those few that were already sent out. And lastly, when he left Whitehall, and took water, he threw the Great Seal into the
Metting of the Peers at Guild-Hall--Their Declaration. Dec. 11. About thirty of the lords spiritual and temporal, then in and about town, namely, the archbishops of Canterbury and York; the bishops of Winchester, St. Asaph, Ely, Rochester and Peterborough; the earls of Pembroke, Dorset, Mulgrave, Thanet, Carlisle, Craven, Aylesbury, Burlington, Berkley, and Rochester; viscount Newport and Weymouth; and the lords Wharton, North and Grey, Chandois, Montague, Jermyn, Vaughan, Carbery, Colepeper, Crewe and Ossulston, all solemnly met at Guild-Hall, and sending for the lord mayor and aldermen of the city, who
Address of the City of London to the Prince.] This was followed by an Address from the city of London to the Prince, which runs thus: "We the lord-mayor, &c. taking into consideration your highness's fervent zeal for the Protestant Religion, manifested to the world in your many hazardous enterprizes, wherein it hath pleased Almighty God to bless you with miraculous success, do render our deepest thanks to the divine majesty for the same, and beg leave to present our most humble thanks to your highness, particularly for your appearing in arms in this kingdom, to carry on and perfect your glorious designs to rescue three kingdoms from Slavery and Popery, and in a Free Parliament to establish the Religion, and the Laws and Liberties of these kingdoms upon
a sure and lasting foundation. We have hitherto looked for the same remedy for those oppressions and imminent dangers, which we, together with our Protestant fellow-subjects, laboured under, from his majesty's concessions and concurrences with your highness's just and pious purpose expressed in your gracious Declaration. But herein finding ourselves finally disappointed by his majesty's withdrawing himself, we presume to make your highness our refuge; and do in the name of this capital city, implore your highness's protection, and most humbly beseech your highness to repair to this city, where your highness will be received with universal joy and satisfaction."
The Lords meet the Prince of Orange at St. James's.] Dee. 21. The lords spiritual and temporal, to the number of above 60, appeared and assisted the Prince at St. James's in a great council. To whom his highness made this short Speech:
"My Lords; I have desired you to meet here to advise the best manner how to pursue the ends of my Declaration in calling a Free Parliament, for the preservation of the Protestant Religion, the restoring the Rights and Liberties of the kingdom, and settling the same, that they may not be in danger of being again subverted."
Upon speaking of which, his highness withdrew. After the reading of the Prince's Declaration, the lords voted their particular Thanks for his highness's coming over; and, the better to consider the most effectual means to obtain the ends of his Declaration, and settle a Form of Government, they resolved to assemble for the future in their antient house at Westminster. For which purpose, they named five of the most eminent lawyers, viz. sir John Maynard, Mr. Holt, Mr. Pollexfen, Mr. Bradford and Mr. Atkinson, to assist them in their important consultations, and to explain to them the laws and constitutions of the realm, in the room of the Judges, who were most of them absent from London. They also appointed Mr. Francis Gwin to sign such Orders as should be from time to time by them made. It was farther proposed, that the whole assembly should sign the Association, formerly mentioned, which the nobility and gentry had already subscribed at Exeter; to which proposal all agreed, except the duke of Somerset, the earls of Pembroke and Nottingham, the lord Wharton, and all the bishops, save that of London, who set his hand to the association. The main objection of the Bishops was upon the account of the unchristian word 'Revenge,' which being afterwards changed for that of 'Punishment,' they were better satisfied.
The King's Paper left behind him when he took Shipping for France.] Dec. 23. The king took shipping for France, having first left behind him a Paper written with his own hand, which was as follows:
"The world cannot wonder at my withdrawing myself now this second time. I might have expected somewhat better usage after
what I writ to the prince of Orange by my lord Feversham, and the instructions I gave him; but instead of an Answer, such as I might have hoped for, what was I to expect after the usage I received, by making the said earl a prisoner, against the practice and law of nations; the sending his own guards at eleven at night, to take possession of the posts at Whitehall, without advertising me in the least manner of it; the sending to me at one a-clock after midnight, when I was in bed, a kind of an Order by three lords, to be gone out of my own palace before twelve that same morning? After all this, how could I hope to be safe, so long as I was in the power of one, who had not only done this to me, and invaded my kingdoms without any just occasion given him for it; but that did, by his first Declaration, lay the great. est aspersion upon me that malice could invent, in that clause of it which concerns my son? I appeal to all that know me, nay, even to himself, that in their consciences, neither he, nor they, can believe me in the least capable of so unnatural a villainy, nor of so little common sense, to be imposed on in a thing of such a nature as that. What had I then to expect from one, who by all arts hath taken such pains to make me appear as black as hell to my own people, as well as to all the world besides? What effect that hath had at home, all mankind have seen by so general a defection in my Army, as well as in the nation, amongst all sorts of people.-I was born free, and desire to continue so; and though I have ventured my life very frankly on several occasions, for the good and honour of my country, and am as free to do it again, (and which I hope I shall yet do, as old as I am, to redeem it from the slavery it is like to fall under) yet I think it not convenient to expose myself to be so secured, as not to be at liberty to effect it; and for that reason do withdraw, but so as to be within call whenever the nation's eyes shall be opened, so as to see how they have been abused and imposed upon by the specious pretences of Religion and Property. I hope it will please God to touch their hearts, out of his infinite mercy, and to make them sensible of the ill condition they are in, and bring them to such a temper, that a legal Parliament may be called; and that, amongst other things which may be necessary to be done, they will agree to Liberty of Conscience to all Protestant Dissenters; and that those of my own persuasion may be so far considered, and have such a share of it, as they may live peaceably and quietly, as all Englishmen and Christians ought to do, and not be obliged to transplant themselves; which would be very grievous, especially to such as live in their own country: and I appeal to all men, who are considering men, and have had experience, whether any thing can make this nation so great and flourishing, as Liberty of Conscience? Some of our neighbours dread it. I could add much more, to confirm what I have said, but now is not the proper time."
The Peers assemble at Westminster: and ad- | dress the Prince of Orange.] There being now an actual Interregnum, about ninety peers met at their house at Westminster, and agreed upon the following Address to the Prince of Orange:
officers who shall execute the same, to the clerk of the crown in the court of chancery; so as the persons so to be chosen may meet and sit at Westminster, on the 22d day of January next."-These two Addresses were subscribed by about ninety lords, who were then present in the house.
The Prince of Orange summons the Commons, &c.] Dec. 23. This day the Prince of Orange issued forth the following Order: viz. "Whereas the necessity of affairs does require
"We the lords spiritual and temporal, assembled in this conjuncture, do desire your bighness to take upon you the administration of Public Affairs both civil and military, and the disposal of the Public Revenue, for the preservation of our Religion, Rights, Laws, Liber-speedy Advice; we do desire all such persons ties and Properties, and of the Peace of the as have served as knights, citizens or burgesses nation; and that your highness will take into in any of the parliaments that were held duryour particular care the present condition of ing the reign of the late king Charles II. to Ireland, and endeavour by the most speedy meet us at St. James's, upon Wednesday the and effectual means to prevent the dangers 26th of this instant Dec. by ten of the clock in threatening that kingdom: all which we make the morning. And we do likewise desire, our requests to your highness to undertake and that the lord mayor and court of aldermen of exercise, till the Meeting of the intended Con- the city of London would be prescut at the vention, the day of Jan. next; in which, same time; and that the cominon-council we doubt not, such proper methods will be would appoint fifty of their number to be taken, as will conduce to the establishment of there likewise. And hereof we desire them these things upon such sure and legal founda- not to fail." tions, that they may not be in danger of being again subverted. Dated at the house of lords, Westminster the 25th of December."
Having made this first step, their lordships proceeded to consider of the most effectual way for summoning the said Convention, and, the same day, drew up their opinions, in this second Address to the Prince :
"We the lords spiritual and temporal, assembled at Westminster in this extraordinary conjuncture, do humbly desire your highness to cause Letters to be written, subscribed by yourself, to the lords spiritual and temporal, being Protestants; and to the several counties, universities, cities, boroughs, and cinque ports of England, Wales, and the town of Berwickupon-Tweed: the Letters for the counties to be directed to the coroners of the respective counties, or any one of them; and in default of the coroners, to the clerk of the peace of the respective counties: and the Letters for the universities, to be directed to every vice-chancellor and the Letters to the several cities, boroughs, and cinque ports, to be directed to the chief magistrate of each respective city, borough and cinque port; containing Directions for the chusing, in all such counties, cities, universities, boroughs and cinque ports, within ten days after the receipt of the respective Letters, such a number of persons to represent them, as are of right to be sent to parliament: of which elections, and the times and places thereof, the respective officers shall give notice, within the space of five days in the least. Notice of the intended elections for the counties, to be published in the churches, immediately after the time of divine service, and in all the market-towns within the said respective counties and notice of the intended elections for the cities, universities, boroughs and cinque ports, to be published within the said respective places. The said Letters, and the execution thereof, to be returned, by such officer and
His Speech to them.] Pursuant to this Summons, many members of the parliaments in king Charles's reign, to the number of about 160, and the aldermen and deputies of the common-council of the city of London, assembled at St. James's, on the appointed day; where the Prince made this following Speech to them: "You, gentlemen, that have been members of the late parliaments, I have desired you to meet me here, to advise the best manner how to pursue the ends of my Declaration, in calling a Free Parliament, for the preservation of the Protestant Religion, and the restoring the Rights and Liberties of the kingdom, and settling the same, that they may not be in danger of being again subverted. And you the aldermen and members of the common-council of the city of London, I desire the same of you. And in regard your numbers are like to be great, you may, if you think fit, divide yourselves, and sit in several places." The ford mayor being absent, upon the account of his indisposition, the Prince gave the copy of bis Speech to sir Thomas Allen, as being eldest alderman, and styled Father of the City, desiring that he and the rest would take that Paper into immediate consideration.
They form themselves into a House.] Accordingly, by agreement, they all repaired to the commons house in Westminster; where being seated, and having chosen Henry Powle, esq. for their chairman, the first question they debated, was, What Authority they had to assemble? Upon which it was soon agreed, That the request of his Highness the Prince was a sufficient warrant. The next Question of moment was, How his highness could take upon him the administration of affairs without a distinguishing name or title? Which objection being started by sir Robert Southwell, was sufficiently answered by serjeant Maynard, who said, That the Assembly would lose